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80 terms

Psychology 10 Midterms 1 and 2

Psychology 10 with Dr. Misha Thackrey at Fresno State, Fall 2012 Midterms 1 and 2
STUDY
PLAY
Most important to your survival is
a. intelligence
b. physical prowess
c. interpersonal relationships
c. interpersonal relationships
Psychology is
a. the study of behavior and mental process
b. the study and treatment of mental and emotional disorders
c. more of an art than a true science
a. the study of behavior and mental process
The field that develops occupational tests and measurements is
a. Mathematics
b. Psychology
c. Education
b. Psychology
Psychology focuses on
a. the level of the individual
b. the level of the brain
c. all levels and systems
c. all levels and systems
Thoughts, feelings, memories, choices
a. cannot really be studied scientifically
b. can be studied with scientific rigor
c. are in the domain of religion and philosophy
b. can be studied with scientific rigor
Which is true of levels and systems?
a. the body's internal chemical systems can affect individual behavior, but not vice versa
b. an individual's behavior cannot really affect the body's internal chemical systems
c. the body's internal chemical events and the behavior of the individual affect each other
c. the body's internal chemical events and the behavior of the individual affect each other
According to the levels and systems view
a. events on the world can affect an individual's internal neurochemistry
b. an individual's internal neurochemistry can affect world history
c. both a and b are true
c. both a and b are true
Change and development are typically
a. gradual
b. smooth
c. discontinuous
c. discontinuous
Change and development are like
a. concrete
b. stone
c. water
a. concrete
Language, clothing, food, religion, family
a. might not be found all cultures
b. are virtually the same in all civilized societies
c. are different all over the world
c. are different all over the world
The first living cells were
a. bubbles
b. amoeba
c. created in the heart of the sun
a. bubbles
The purpose of sexual reproduction is to
a. decrease variation
b. increase variation
c. hold variation constant
b. increase variation
Past could have been different, future has many possibilities
a. levels and systems
b. change and development
c. alternatives and choices
c. alternatives and choices
Sometimes males do risky things to show off - things that actually might be deadly - an example of
a. natural selection
b. artificial selection
c. sexual selection
c. sexual selection
Culture is
a. a group's way of solving a problem
b. something that we can change at any time
c. what the higher class people do
a. a group's way of solving a problem
The electrical activity of a neuron
a. comes from chemical processes
b. comes from electricity stored deep within the cell
c. is alternating current (AC)
a. comes from chemical processes
An individual neuron
a. can fire partially or fully
b. either fires or remains at rest
c. has one and only connection with any other neuron
b. either fires or remains at rest
One neuron communicates with another neuron
a. at the point where the two neurons actually touch
b. electrically
c. chemically
c. chemically
The most important cortical difference
a. left vs. right
b. front vs. back
c. parietal vs. occipital
b. front vs. back
According to Hamilton (1954), _______ is the sum of classical fitness plus the effects the individual's actions have on the reproductive success of his or her genetic relatives, weighed by the degree of genetic relatedness
a. direct fitness
b. indirect fitness
c. inclusive fitness
d. exclusive fitness
c. inclusive fitness
The common ancestor of all modern humans can be traced back to ______ years ago
a. 35-40 thousand
b. 120-150 thousand
c. 27 million
d. 30 million
b. 120-150 thousand
Which of the following is the theory of human origins which has received much support from archeological evidence, though recent genetic evidence has refuted its exclusivity as a full explanation?
a. out of Africa
b. multiregional continuity
c. North American bottleneck
d. creative explosion
a. out of Africa
Which of the following theories is the only known scientific theory that can explain adaptations?
a. seeding theory
b. evolution by natural selection
c. inclusive fitness theory
d. creationism
b. evolution by natural selection
Adaptions initially start as _____.
a. other adaptations
b. genetic mutations
c. byproducts
d. noise
b. genetic mutations
As predicted from an evolutionary perspective, a study by Flinn and colleagues documented that children living with a stepparent have _____ levels of _____ than children living with biological parents.
a. lower; testosterone
b. higher; testosterone
c. lower; cortisol
d. higher; cortisol
d. higher; cortisol
The antimicrobial hypothesis predicts that
a. individuals will spice foods more in colder climates
b. individuals will spice foods more in hotter climates
c. individuals will be more averse to microbes in hotter climates
d. c. individuals will be more averse to microbes in colder climates
b. individuals will spice foods more in hotter climates
Pregnancy sickness is an adaptation for
a. avoiding toxins that could harm the mother
b. avoiding toxins that could harm the developing baby
c. decreasing demands on father to test their willingness to invest in offspring
d. increasing the likelihood that a mother will spontaneously abort an unwanted fetus
b. avoiding toxins that could harm the developing baby
Elevated testosterone early in life can _____ in later life.
a. have beneficial effects
b. have no effects
c. have detrimental effects
d. be higher
c. have detrimental effects
Selection acts more strongly on men than women because
a. women have greater variability in reproduction
b. men have greater variability in reproduction
c. men are larger than women
d. men die sooner than women
b. men have greater variability in reproduction
Women's olfactory acuity peaks
a. at or before ovulation
b. just after ovulation
c. during the luteal phase
d. during post-ovulatory phase
a. at or before ovulation
Multiple studies have now demonstrated that women who have high access to their own resources tend to place more emphasis on _____ than women with low access to resources do.
a. a mate's financial prospects
b. a mate's physical attractiveness
c. a mate's interest in infants
d. a mate's kindness
a. a mate's financial prospects
Which of the following cues appears to be the key factor in our incest-avoidance mechanisms?
a. co-residence during childhood
b. emotional closeness
c. knowledge of genetic relatedness
d. number of siblings
a. co-residence during childhood
Despite average changes in weight over the past thirty years, Singh found that _____ did not change (as reflected in the centerfold of men's magazines)
a. facial symmetry
b. female preferences
c. body fat distribution
d. waist-to-hip ratio
d. waist-to-hip ratio
Men in the later stages of a relationship have _____ testosterone than men in early stages of a relationship. When divorced men remarry, they experience a _____ in testosterone.
a. higher; spike
b. lower; drop
c. lower; spike
d. higher; drop
b. lower; drop
Men who are in relationships and willing to have an affair tend to have _____ testosterone than men unwilling to have an affair, which supports the idea that testosterone is associated with _____ in men.
a. lower; fertility
b. higher; fertility
c. lower; mating effort
d. higher; mating effort
d. higher; mating effort
Women tend to degrade other women's _____, especially during the _____ phase of their cycle.
a. status; fertile
b. physical appearance; fertile
c. status; infertile
d. physical appearance; infertile
b. physical appearance; fertile
Men's ratings of women's attractiveness _____ following short-term casual sex, and women's ratings of men's attractivenss _____ following short-term casual sex.
a. decrease; decrease
b. decrease; increase
c. increase; increase
d. increase; decrease
b. decrease; increase
Mated women are _____ to have an orgasm with their extra-pair partner than/as they are with their long-term partner.
a. not as likely
b. equally likely
c. less
d. more
d. more
Infanticide rates are highest among
a. married women
b. unmarried women
c. older women
d. higher-status women
b. unmarried women
The answer to this item is "c".
a.
b.
c.
c.
To study effectively you must
a. reread the text
b. use self-hypnosis
c. review your notes
c. review your notes
Which is true?
a. we create our perceptions
b. perceptions cannot be created; they are what they are
c. Only in our dreams do we truly create our perceptions
a. we create our perceptions
Which is true?
a. We perceive reality
b. We perceive only a small part of reality
c. Our perceptions have nothing at all to do with reality
b. We perceive only a small part of reality
Which is true?
a. Humans are the only creatures that are truly conscious
b. Visual information is the most realistic of all
c. Some animals can perceive parts of the universe that humans cannot
c. Some animals can perceive parts of the universe that humans cannot
Light, electricity, magnetism
a. points on a spectrum
b. the fundamental elements of the universe
d. do not really exist
a. points on a spectrum
The most basic and fundamental level of communication
a. pheromonal/olfactory
b. gesture
c. verbilization
a. pheromonal/olfactory
The eyes and face are directly connected
a. to the amygdala
b. to the frontal cortex
c. to both the frontal cortex and the amygdala
c. to both the frontal cortex and the amygdala
Humans communicate
a. almost exclusively through the verbal channel
b. mostly through the nonverbal channel
c. through all the channels simultaneously
c. through all the channels simultaneously
Hypnosis
a. social influence on perception
b. subliminal perception
c. mysterious process that continues to baffle science
a. social influence on perception
Which ancestor do monkeys and apes have in common?
a. Chimps
b. Rhesus monkeys
c. Lemurs
c. lemurs
Group process
a. in/out, up/down, near/far, right/wrong
b. right/wrong, in/out, up/down, near/far
c. near/far, right/wrong, up/down, in/out
a. in/out, up/down, near/far, right/wrong
Taming little beasties
a. Baseline, Child's Game, Parent's Game
b. Baseline, Parent's Game, Child's Game
c. Child's Game, Parent's Game, Baseline
a. Baseline, Child's Game, Parent's Game
The methods of Dog Whisper Cesar Millan
a. Group process, nonverbal communication, individual behavior training
b. subliminal perception, psychosexual ambiguity, spiritual release
c. Pavlovian conditioning, Operant Conditioning, post-hypnotic suggestion
a. Group process, nonverbal communication, individual behavior training
The most unimportant ingredients in events such as Heaven's Gate and Jamestown
a. unstable leaders
b. mentally ill followers
c. normal group processes gone awry
c. normal group processes gone awry
A drug is
a. any substance that alters body function
b. anything that alters body function
c. any substance that affects the mind
a. any substance that alters body function
Who uses drugs
a. Most people do not use drugs
b. Most people use drugs
c. Everyone uses drugs
c. Everyone uses drugs
Air, food, water
a. Cannot be considered drugs
b. Are the main classes of drugs
c. Can become drugs depending on how they are consumed
c. Can become drugs depending on how they are consumed
Which is true?
a. Legal drugs are safe and illegal drugs are dangerous
b. Legal drugs have legitimate uses and illegal drugs do not
c. Legal drugs are the drugs of the ruling class
c. Legal drugs are the drugs of the ruling class
____ imprisons more people than any other country, mostly for _____
a. USA; drug offenses
b. China; political crimes
c. Russia; gangsterism
a. USA; drug offenses
Schizophrenia
a. two or more personalities
b. hallucinations and delusions
c. general intellectual impariment
b. hallucinations and delusions
The Israeli Kibbutz failed because
a. men were overcome with jealousy over having to share their wives
b. women were jealous of their husbands' involvement with other women
c. women demanded to raise their own children
d. children demanded to be with their parents
c. women demanded to raise their own children
Discriminative parental solicitude describes
a. a suite of parental mechanisms designed to channel investment towards children better able to convert investment into reproductive success
b. a suite of parental mechanisms designed to channel investment towards children less able to convert investment into inclusive fitness
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
a. a suite of parental mechanisms designed to channel investment towards children better able to convert investment into reproductive success
Which of the following is true of how parents feel about their children based on facial similarity?
a. Mothers and fathers feel equally emotionally close to all children, regardless of resemblance
b. The more offspring resemble them, the more mothers and fathers feel emotionally close to them
c. Mothers feel more emotionally close to offspring who resemble them, while fathers feel equally close to all offspring regardless of resemblance
d. Fathers feel more emotionally close to offspring who resemble them, while mothers feel equally close to all offspring regardless of resemblance
d. Fathers feel more emotionally close to offspring who resemble them, while mothers feel equally close to all offspring regardless of resemblance
Selection will favor adaptations for helping kin in proportion to
a. their past mate value
b. their genetic relatedness
c. how needy they are of financial aid
d. how long it takes that help to translate into fitness benefits
b. their genetic relatedness
An implication of inclusive fitness theory on familial relations is that
a. younger members of extended kin will encourage elder members to behave more altruistically toward collateral kin
b. elder members of extended kin will encourage younger members to behave more altruistically toward collateral kin
c. Kinship terms will maintain special connotation and will not be co-opted into use by non-kin
d. people somehow know exactly how genetically related they are to other individuals, even those they have just met
b. elder members of extended kin will encourage younger members to behave more altruistically toward collateral kin
Parental conflict centers on
a. how much parental investment each parent will give to the offspring within the family
b. how many children would be ideal for the pair
c. how much investment grandparents make in their offspring
d. why children do not resemble the father or his kin
a. how much parental investment each parent will give to the offspring within the family
De Waal found that male chimpanzees often benefit from social alliances by
a. aligning themselves with lower-status males
b. exploiting changes in the structure of female hierarchies
c. being granted sexual access to females
d. creating social groups of 8 or more
c. being granted sexual access to females
A _____ person is more vulnerable to desertion than is someone who is _____
a. replaceable; irreplaceable
b. irreplaceable; replaceable
c. altruistic; a cheater
d. young; an elderly person
a. replaceable; irreplaceable
Which of the following has been identified as a potential facial cue to altruistic tendencies?
a. eyebrow raises
b. large eyes
c. femininity
d. genuine smiles
d. genuine smiles
The majority of victims of male perpetrated crimes are ______
a. high-status men
b. reproductive-aged women
c. post-reproductive-aged women
d. other men
d. other men
Male victims of bullies were more often _____ while female victims were more often _____
a. stolen from; physically hurt
b. the object of nasty rumors; called nasty names
c. physically hurt; the object of nasty rumors
d. called nasty names; stolen from
c. physically hurt; the object of nasty rumors
Young male syndrome is
a. the phenomenon of younger men being the most prone to form cooperative alliances for the purpose of exacting revenge
b. the phenomenon of younger men being the most prone to engaging in risky forms of aggression
c. the tendency of younger males to abuse their parents at higher rates than older males
d. the decreased ability of younger males to withdraw from conflicts
b. the phenomenon of younger men being the most prone to engaging in risky forms of aggression
Autonomy-limiting behaviors are ____ correlated with violence perpetrated by husbands against their wives
a. negatively
b. positively
c. not
d. moderately
b. positively
Men are more likely to use _____ as a mate retention tactic and women are more likely to use _____ as a mate-retention tactic
a. appearance enhancement; resource display
b. resource display; appearance enhancement
c. vigilance; violence
d. jealousy induction; emotional manipulation
b. resource display; appearance enhancement
Some feminist writers have claimed that all men are united in attempting to keep women submissive to them. Evolutionary thinking refutes this proposition because
a. men and women compete primarily with members of their own sex
b. men and women compete primarily with individual members of the opposite sex
c. there are no resources for which men and women compete against one another
d. selection cannot shape sex-specific psychological mechanisms
a. men and women compete primarily with members of their own sex
Men's jealousy is especially attuned to _____ rivals and women's jealousy is especially attuned to _____ rivals
a. sexually aggressive; high-status
b. low-status; physically dominant
c. physically-dominant; young
d. high-status; physically attractive
d. high-status; physically attractive
If a cricket wins a fight, it will _____ and if it loses a fight it _____
a. avoid confrontations with other crickets; becomes less likely to initiate a fight
b. become more aggressive in subsequent fights; becomes more submissive
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
b. become more aggressive in subsequent fights; becomes more submissive
Fighting avoidance is beneficial to potential losers because _____ and beneficial to potential winners because _____
a. they can gain sexual access to females; they avoid the risk of injuries
b. they risk injury; they risk energetic costs of engaging in a fight
c. they break social alliances to form new ones; they avoid having to form new alliances
b. they risk injury; they risk energetic costs of engaging in a fight
Winners of a competition experience elevated mood and
a. increase their helping behaviors
b. decrease their helping behaviors
c. greater envy
d. are more likely to avoid competition
a. increase their helping behaviors
McGuire and Raleigh studied serotonin levels in association with dominance and found that
a. alpha males possessed the lowest levels of serotonin
b. social rank was not correlated with serotonin in their subjects
c. as a lower-ranking individual gained status, his serotonin level increased
d. as a lower-ranking individual gained status, his serotonin level decreased
c. as a lower-ranking individual gained status, his serotonin level increased