Terms in this set (67)
unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions
discrete category into which a person can be sorted
What do trait theories focus on?
at what age does the personality stabilize?
Allport, Sattel, and Eysenck are all what kind of theorists?
-used unabridged dictionary
-Described personality in terms of fundamental traits
-put adjectives into smaller categories
-16 personality variables
-introvert and extrovert scale
-psychotiscism and asocial
-condensed 16 traits to 3
-2 personality dimensions; extravert/intravert & emotional stability/instability.
openness to experience
-original and open to new ideas vs conventional and narrow in interests
-thinks outside the box
developed the Five Factor Personality Trait(openness, consciousness,exrtraversion agreeableness, neuroticism)
responsible and organized vs irresponsible and careless
sociable and talkative vs. withdrawn and quiet
trusting , sympathetic & good natured vs. cold
emotionally unstable and moody vs emotionally stable and easy going
5 factor model
-Researchers asked over 10,000 men & women from 37 countries what they wanted in a mate
-High degree of agreement are at the top of both lists
-tend to describe, but not explain personality
Examine how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings, & actions
adler, jung, horney
Who were the neo-freudians?
many experience an inferiority complex, which later results in a will-to-power
feels of inferiority are made during younger childhood experiences, saw our life goals, obtaining security
inherited collective unconscious consisting of archetypes
both positive and negative forces, we all have a personal unsconscious, we all have an inherited collectable unconscious, we all have an ancestral memory, resoverior of shared universal experinces
concept of basic anxiety
rejuected biological as the basic differences of the sexes,
the differneces between the sexes are influenced by our environment, penis envy does not exist it is power envy
conscious, preconscious, unconscious
three levels of consciousness?
-thoughts or motives person is currently aware of or remembering
-open to easy inspection
-thoughts, motives, or memories that can be voluntarily
brought to mind
-can repress memories
thoughts, motives, or memories blocked from normal awareness`
What is id, ego, and superego?
instinctual energy (pleasure principle)
if it feels good do it, immediate gratification and pleasure
-rational part of psyche (reality principle)
-develops after id and balances it
self, planning, problem solving, balancing id, helps us to be able to delay gratification, conscious and unconscious levels
the conscience (morality principle)
ethical rules of conduct, how we see things, parental and social rules, moral ,idealistic self, preconscious, conscious, and unconscious levels
ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
what defense mechanism did Freud stress?
helps to block, helps us to forget painful events
Defense mechanism by which people redirect socially unacceptable impulses toward acceptable goals.
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
psychosexual stages of development
Five discontinuous stages where personality faces different crises, progression impacted by how well each is resolved
-birth to 1 year
-weaning from breast or bottle
-4 to 5 years
-6 years to puberty
-interacting with same sex person
-puberty to adulthood
-establishing intimate relationships with the opposite sex
humanist theory of personality
-Personality develops from
-internal experiences (feelings & thoughts), individual feelings of basic worth
-Human nature is innately good (or, at worst, neutral) with positive drive toward self-fulfillment
-Key Figures: Rogers & Maslow
Who emphasized :
-Importance of the self
-Mental health as related to degree of congruence between self-concept & life experiences
Conditional positive regard, unconditional positive regard
what are Rogers' key terms?
conditional positive regard
In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others; conditional love or acceptance.
unconditional postive regard
an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says of does
self actualization, hierarchy of needs
What did Maslow stress?
innate tendency / inborn drive to develop all one's talents and capabilities
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's proposed basic physical necessities must be satisfied before higher growth needs
social cognitive theories
-Individual's interactions with environment, How people think about world & interpret what happens to them
-Key Figures: Bandura & Rotter
self efficacy, reciprocal determinism
What were bandura's concepts?
person's learned expectation of success
cognitions, behaviors, and environment interact to produce personality
who's concepts are:
-locus of control
what to expect to happen
degree to which people prefer one reinforcer over another
locus of control
-what people consider source of life's rewards and punishments
-internal or external
internal locus of control
the perception that you control your own fate
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
Mischels Cognitive Affective Personality Theory
this theory accounts for both variability of behavior &
stability in personality & behavior as a function of interactions between people & situations
-Expectancies & Beliefs
-Goals & values
-Competencies & Self-regulatory plans
suggests multiple theories provide different insights and proportionately different contributions to personality
a well researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems
a survey that assesses The Big Five traits, people indicate how much they think different verbal descriptions apply to them
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
a projective test in which subjects look at and tell a story about ambiguous pictures
emphasize individual's personal needs and goals over those of the group
emphasize needs and goals of the group over the individual