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Urbanization/Industrial Revolution/Immigration Vocabulary
Terms in this set (43)
Edwin L. Drake
Edwin Laurentine Drake, also known as Colonel Drake, was the first American to successfully drill for oil.
A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort.
Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
An American inventor who invented the QWERTY keyboard and made the first typewriter in the United States.
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone.
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west.
George M. Pullman
George Mortimer Pullman was an American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, Pullman, for the workers who manufactured it.
Interstate Commerce Act
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad. industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He is often identified as one of the richest people and one of the richest Americans ever
vertical and horizontal integration
Contrary to horizontal integration, which is a consolidation of many firms that handle the same part of the production process, vertical integration is typified by one firm engaged in different parts of production.
the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.
John D. Rockefeller
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. was an American oil industry business magnate and philanthropist, who is considered to be the wealthiest American of all time by virtually every source, and—largely—the richest person in modern history.
Sherman Antitrust Act
The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act, 26 Stat. 209, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1-7) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890.
Samuel Gompers was an English-born, American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Wikipedia
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was organized in 1886. Its president was Samuel Gompers, who served until 1925. During Gompers' presidency, the AFL rose to more than 4 million members by 1920, after which its membership declined until 1933, when it was not much more than 2 million.
Eugene V. Debs
Eugene Victor "Gene" Debs was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World, and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1906 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America
Mary Harris Jones
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones was an Irish-born American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent labor and community organizer. She helped coordinate major strikes and cofounded the Industrial Workers of the World.
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the United States as the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station for over sixty years from 1892 until 1954.
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais.
a place where different peoples, styles, theories, etc., are mixed together.
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Chinese Exclusion Act
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
The Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the United States of America would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration.
Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.
The United States dealt with a flood of immigrants during the early 20th century through the Americanization Movement—a variety of programs and campaigns aimed at turning foreigners into Americans. At the turn of the 20th century, millions of immigrants poured into the United States.
a room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.
public transportation, especially in an urban area.
Social Gospel movement
The Social Gospel Movement was a religious movement that arose during the second half of the nineteenth century. Ministers, especially ones belonging to the Protestant branch of Christianity, began to tie salvation and good works together. They argued that people must emulate the life of Jesus Christ.
an institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community.
Jane Addams was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
A political machine is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
a shoot or twig inserted into a slit on the trunk or stem of a living plant, from which it receives sap.
William Magear Tweed —often erroneously referred to as "William Marcy Tweed", and widely known as "Boss" Tweed—was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall.
the support given by a patron.
the permanent professional branches of a government's administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected politicians.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th President of the United States. As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform.
James A. Garﬁeld
James Abram Garfield was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881, until his assassination later that year.
Chester A. Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur was an American attorney and politician who served as the 21st President of the United States; he succeeded James A. Garfield upon the latter's assassination.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403) is a United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer who was both the 22nd and 24th President of the United States.
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd President of the United States from 1889 to 1893; he was the grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison.
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering.
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