Personality Psychology Final Exam
Terms in this set (182)
Jung proposed eight psychological types, based on the interactions of the
two psychological attitudes and four psychological functions.
According to Jung, a(n) _____ is a core or pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes in one's personal conscious organized around a common theme.
According to Jung's belief, which of the following is responsible for the formation of complexes in the personal unconscious of an individual?
The childhood experiences
The adult experiences
The ancestral experiences
According to Jung, the _____ personality types tend to be outgoing, pleasure seeking, and adaptable.
According to Jung, which of the following is the deepest and least accessible level of the human psyche?
The ancient experiences contained in the collective unconscious are manifested by recurring themes or patterns, which Jung termed _____.
The anima and animus express Jung's idea that all humans are essentially _____.
Which of the following is true of the shadow archetype?
The behaviors that society considers evil and immoral reside in the shadow.
Jung proposed all of the following major archetypes except the _____.
Jung used all of the following assessment techniques to evaluate personality except:
Jung used the method of _____ to analyze his patients' dreams.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is
a test to assess Jung's psychological types and attitudes
In the context of midlife crisis in women, which of the following statements is true?
Midlife transition was easier for career women than those who opted for a domestic life.
Which of the following methods involves an extensive recollection of a person's past experiences in which Jung sought to identify the developmental patterns he believed led to the present neurotic condition?
According to Jung, _____ one's interests must shift from the physical and material to the spiritual, philosophical, and intuitive
at middle age
In Jung's view, which of the following is true of individuation?
It involves fulfilling one's capacities and developing one's self.
Which of the following terms did Alfred Adler use for his approach to personality?
Unlike Freud, which of the following did Adler emphasize?
Minimizing the importance of sex
The uniqueness of the individual
The urge toward perfection that motivates each of us is what Adler meant by:
striving for superiority.
In Adler's view, fictional finalism:
guides our behavior as we strive to become complete.
Alcoholics and drug addicts are typical of the _____ type of style of life.
In Adler's view, a mother's influence:
can foster or thwart the development of social interest.
Being a major social influence in childhood, birth order dictates that the _____ child will experience a sense of dethronement.
Adler proposed the concept of social interest to define:
the innate potential to cooperate with others.
The style of life is not firmly crystallized until:
the age of 4 or 5.
According to Adler, the child most likely to mature early and manifest adult behaviors is the:
In Adler's view, the process of overcoming inferiority feelings:
begins in infancy.
According to Adler's concept of social interest, an individual must:
get along with others.
Adler argued that a person having defective body parts:
compensates by shaping his or her personality well.
Once our style of life has been created, it will:
remain constant throughout life.
In the context of Adler's idea of the order of birth, a person who is competitive and ambitious is most likely to be a(n):
Identify a true statement in the context of Adler's image of human nature.
Each person possesses the free will to shape the social forces influencing him or her.
Adler's primary research method was the:
Adler's own early recollections reveal his:
feelings of inferiority.
According to Adler, first-borns are:
concerned with power and authority.
In the context of Adler's idea of the order of birth, the child most likely to develop at a remarkably fast rate is the:
Based on Jung's psychological types, the extraverted intuiting type of person would be:
creative, able to inspire others, and able to seize opportunities.
According to Adler, a person interested in maintaining order and authority and being conscientious and scrupulous about detail is more likely to be a(n):
Collective unconscious is a core or pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes organized around a common theme.
According to Jung, both the animus and the anima archetypes exist and must be expressed.
The word-association test became a standard projective technique and inspired the development of the Rorschach inkblot test and lie detection techniques.
Jung's case study method, which he called life-history reconstruction was reliable, gathered in a systematic fashion, and based on objective observation.
According to Jung, the ultimate goal in life is the realization of the self.
To Adler, the unconscious, not the conscious, was at the core of personality.
Adler believed that inferiority feelings are a constant motivating force in all behavior.
Adler believed the father's role was vital in developing the child's social interest as well as other aspects of the personality
Second-borns do not suffer the sense of dethronement felt by first-borns when another child is added to the family.
Youngest children have an inferiority complex and therefore often develop at a slower rate than their older siblings.
Freud made _____ an important part of his personality theory, asserting that it is fundamental to the development of all neurotic and psychotic behavior.
Which of the following statements can be used to sum up personality?
Personality is how we perceive ourselves and also how others perceive us.
Of the three levels of personality, the _____ strives for immediate satisfaction of its needs and does not tolerate delay or postponement of satisfaction for any reason.
According to Freud, what are the two primary types of instincts?
Life and death
Which of the following statements is true of instincts as described by Freud?
The aim of an instinct is to satisfy a need and thereby reduce feelings of tension.
Jung's view of personality differs from Freud's in that Jung:
placed an even greater emphasis on the unconscious.
According to Freud, _____ are the motivating forces that drive behavior and determine its direction.
Freud believed _____ to be the primary cause of all neuroses.
Girls and boys are usually reared according to:
According to Freud, _____ serve the purpose of survival of the individual and the species by seeking to satisfy the needs for food, water, air, and sex.
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders is known as _____.
A main reason for administering an online self-report inventory is that:
it prevents test-takers from looking ahead at questions.
Identify a cultural difference between individualism and collectivism.
The levels of anxiety and depression have been found to be lower in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic ones
In the context of the clinical method used in personality research, a _____ refers to a detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources.
In experimental research, the _____ variable is the one manipulated by the experimenter.
The correlational method of research:
measures the relationship between two variables.
The most widely used self-report personality test is the:
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
Which of the following is true of the principle of reliability that is used in personality assessment?
It involves the consistency of response to an assessment device.
Which of the following is true of self-enhancement?
It is defined as the tendency to make one conspicuous.
A person from a collectivist society is more likely to focus on:
In the past, _____ were more likely to be used in research on personality theory.
Which of the following is true of people using social networking sites, such as Facebook?
They tend to portray an idealized self-image of themselves.
They feel they are able to express their true selves.
They have a tendency to present themselves as much more emotionally stable.
The personality of an individual is _____.
a unique cluster of characteristics
Which of the following is true about personality?
Personality can limit or expand the choices one has in life.
Jung's early life was characterized by:
religious doubts and conflicts and bizarre dreams and visions.
Jung's theory of personality differs sharply from Freud's concerning the:
inner growth of an individual.
How did Carl Jung overcome his neurotic disturbance, which later influenced his theory of personality?
Through the exploration of his dreams and fantasies
Identify an area of disagreement between Jung and Freud.
The nature of libido
Jung considered libido as:
a broader and more generalized form of psychic energy.
All of the following are principles explain the functioning of psychic energy except _____.
Jung applied the principle of _____ to psychic energy by proposing that there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in the personality.
According to Jung, the _____ is the conscious aspect of personality.
According to Jung, all of the following are functions of the psyche except:
Freud viewed human beings as victims of the past, whereas Jung believed that human beings are shaped by both their past and future events.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is considered a projective measure of personality assessment.
Jung believed that the most crucial stage in personality development was middle age.
According to Jung, the id is the center of consciousness
Rearing of girls and boys according to traditional gender stereotypes plays a major role in shaping their personalities in different ways.
According to Jung, everyone has the capacity for both mental attitudes of extraversion and introversion, but only one becomes dominant in the personality.
According to Jung, introverted feeling types are emotional, sensitive, and sociable.
Freud's major research method was the case study.
Children at the latency stage are fixated on their genitals and sexual pleasure.
A test-taker tends to make himself or herself appear acceptable and socially desirable on a self-report inventory.
The reliability of assessment techniques is concerned with whether a test measures what it is intended to measure.
The Rorschach Inkblot tests, unlike the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), can be widely used for ethnic minorities.
In Freud's psychosexual stages of development, each developmental stage has a conflict that must be resolved before the infant or child can progress to the next stage.
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are conscious forms of reality.
Horney strongly disagreed with Freud about:
Which of the following is true of Horney's theory on personality?
It reflects a feminist viewpoint of psychoanalysis.
Horney's theory was influenced by her:
Karen Horney incorporated her own childhood experience of _____ into her theory.
neglect and want for love
What factor in Horney's childhood is reflected in her personality theory?
Her fear of being unwanted by her parents
Horney decided to undergo psychoanalysis after:
realizing her inability to alleviate her depression and emotional problems otherwise.
Horney agreed with Freud about the:
importance of the early childhood years in shaping the adult personality.
Which statement does not reflect Horney's views about childhood?
Biological forces are more important than social forces in shaping personality.
According to Horney, children can develop feelings of security in spite of traumatic events when:
parents show warmth and affection.
In Horney's view, the more afraid a child is of his or her parents, _____.
the more the child represses hostility
Helplessness, fear, and hostility create what Horney called _______.
In Horney's view, in which of the following ways do children strive to protect against basic anxiety?
By seeking affection or love
By attaining power
By withdrawing from people
According to Horney, one of the self-protective devices used to cope with basic anxiety involves:
withdrawing from people psychologically.
In Horney's view, a child who isolates himself and refuses to play with others may be experiencing:
The four self-protective mechanisms that were proposed by Horney:
defend against basic anxiety.
According to Horney, neurotic needs are:
irrational defenses against anxiety.
All of the following are neurotic needs according to Horney except:
The neurotic needs, as proposed by Horney, should become a cause for concern if a person:
is found to pursue one of them compulsively.
In Horney's view, _____ includes the neurotic needs for self-sufficiency, perfection, and narrow limits to life.
According to Horney, individuals of the aggressive personality type try to protect themselves against anxiety by expressing the neurotic need for _____.
According to Horney, the neurotic trend of moving toward other people is associated with the:
As noted by Horney, individuals who manipulate others to achieve their own ends represent the neurotic trend of moving _____ people.
According to Horney, people with a compliant personality:
are insensitive to the needs of others.
Horney believed that people with a(n) _____ personality type may become highly successful in their careers, although the work itself will not provide them any intrinsic satisfaction.
According to Horney, people who rely on their own resources, have a great need for privacy and deny feelings for others represent the _____ personality type.
In Horney' view, a person with a(n) _____ personality type would need to feel superior to others by automatic recognition of his or her uniqueness without struggle or involvement with others.
Horney's compliant personality is similar to Adler's:
In Horney's system, conflict in personality:
derives from incompatibility among the three neurotic trends.
According to Horney, a normal person differs from a neurotic in that a normal person:
expresses all neurotic trends as circumstances warrant.
Horney believed that a self-image is constructed by a(n) _____ person built on a realistic appraisal of their own abilities, potentials, and weaknesses.
The idealized self-image of the neurotic person leads to a problem Horney called the:
tyranny of the shoulds.
Horney's idea that men envy women because of a woman's capacity for motherhood:
was based on the pleasure of experiencing childbirth.
Horney believed that men often express and compensate for womb envy:
by seeking achievement in their work.
According to Horney, a woman's sense of inferiority is:
socially and culturally based.
In Horney's view, the Oedipus complex in boys:
develops when parents act to undermine a child's security.
In context of defining roles, Horney believes that modern women experience psychological conflict between:
love and work.
Horney believed that neuroses and conflicts can be avoided when children are raised:
with love, acceptance, and trust.
In Horney's view, although childhood influences are important, _____.
later experiences also shape personality due to the flexibility of human nature
Horney used _____ to assess the functioning of the human personality.
free association and dream analysis
Horney's actual research approach relied mainly on:
behavioral assessment through case studies.
Which of the following has been found to be true according to research on the neurotic trends as proposed by Horney?
College students preparing for careers in helping professions such as nursing and social work scored higher in compliance.
Between the two types of competitiveness identified by researchers, competing to excel (CE):
deals with surpassing one's personal goals.
Horney' concept of the real self and self-realization were used by _____.
Today, there is a renewed interest in Horney's ideas:
primarily due to the women's movement that began in the 1960s.
To Horney, Basic anxiety is:
the foundation of neurosis.
According to Horney, basic anxiety is the "all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world."
In Horney's view, neurotic needs were actual rational solutions to one's problems.
A person, according to Horney, will manifest all 10 neurotic needs to some degree.
According to Horney, there are three categories of behaviors and attitudes toward oneself and others that express a person's needs.
According to Horney, neurotics tend to look for a problem in other people but blame themselves for it.
_____, developed in the seventh stage of life, may be the most important factor contributing to ego integrity in the eighth and final stage of psychosocial development
Erikson believed that the basic strength associated with adulthood is
the psychosocial development stage of maturity that lasts the longest is the
what stage did erikson consider to be a positive outcome in the young adulthood stage
a person establishes intimate relationships
according to erikson, the basic strength that should develop during adolescence
the term fidelity encomposes
sincerity, genuineness, and a sense of duty in relationships
according to erikson a _____ identity is preferable to no identity during the adolescent stage
the locomotor-gential stage of erikson's stage of psychosocial development, which occurs between ages 3 and 5, involves _____ as the two ways of coping
initiative versus guilt
during erikson's first stage of psychosocial development, when trust or mistrust are they ways of coping, the most important body part is the
each of erikson's developmental stages provides individuals an opportunity to
develop their basic strengths
in erikson's view, at each stage of psychosocial development, _____
the ego must incorporate both maladaptive and adaptive ways of coping
according to erikson, if a conflict at one developmental stage cannot be resolved, then a person is more likely to
find it difficult to adapt to later problems
erikson used the term _____ to refer to the idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on hereditary factors
epigenetic principle of maturation
erikson included all of the following in his theory of personality
the eight stages of life
social and environmental forces
erikson divided the growth of the personality into
eight psychosocial stages of development
in which of the following did erikson note the phenomenon of identity confusion
his study of world war II veterans
from his early work and analysis with anna freud, erikson developed interest in
psychoanalytic work with children
erikson's childhood and youth were characterized by
a number of identity crises
erikson extended freud's theory by placing greater emphasis on the _____ than on the _____
according to erikson, personality develops
over the entire life span
What is true about personality
personality can limit or expand the choices one has in life
the personality of an individual is _____
a unique cluster of characteristics
a person from a collectivist society is more likely to focus on
What is true of self-enahncement
it is defined as the tendency to make one conspicuous
which of the following is true of the principle of reliability that is used in personality assessment
it involves the consistency of response to an assessment device
the most widely used self-report personality test is the
minnesota multiphasic personality invetory
in the experimental research, _____ variable is the one manipulated by the experimenter
in the context of the clinical method used in personality research, a _____ refers to detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources
in thought and experience assessment, _____
the observer and the person being observed are the same
a main reason for administering an online self-report inventory is that
sigmund freud's theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders is known aspsychoanalysis
freud believed _____ tio be the primary cause of all neuroses
according to freud, _____ are the motivations forces that drive behavior and determine its direction
what is true of instincts as described by freud
the aim of an instinct is to satisfy a need and thereby reduce feelings of tension
according to freud, what are the two primary types of instincts
life and death
of the three levels of personality, the _____ strives for immediate satisfaction of its needs and does not tolerate delay or postponement of satisfaction for any reason
freud made _____ an important part of his personality theory, asserting that it is fundamental to the development of all neurotic and psychotic behavior