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Neuropsychology Ch. 15
Terms in this set (79)
Tolerance to psychoactive drugs is largely...
e. cross tolerance
Delirium tremens can be produced by withdrawal from...
e. both a and b
A method of measuring drug-produced reinforcement or pleasure in laboratory animals is the...
a. drug self-administration paradigm
b. conditioned place-preference paradigm
c. conditioned tolerance paradigm
d. all of the above
e. both a and b
An individual who displays a withdrawal syndrome when intake of a drug is curtailed is said to be ______________ on that drug.
The before-and-after design is used to study ____________ drug tolerance.
The fact that drug tolerance is often ___________ suggests that Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in addiction.
_____________ is a semi-synthetic opiate that penetrates the blood-brain barrier more effectively than morphine.
______________ disease provides a compelling illustration of nicotine's addictive power.
Anandamide was the first endogenous ___________ to be identified.
_____________ heroin addicts were among the first to legally receive heroin injections from a physician for a small fee.
Morphine and Codeine are constituents of _______________.
Convulsions and hyperthermia are symptoms of withdrawal from ____________.
Cocaine sprees can produce cocaine psychosis, a syndrome that is similar to paranoid _____________.
Drugs that affect the nervous system and behavior are called __________ drugs.
The most dangerous route of drug administration is ___________ injection.
Drug tolerance is of two different types: metabolic and _______________.
drugs that influence subjective experience and behavior by acting on the nervous system
conversion of a drug from its active form to a nonactive form
a state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops as a result of exposure to the drug
tolerance to the effects of one drug that develops as the result of exposure to another drug that acts by the same mechanism
an increase in the sensitivity to a drug effect that develops as the result of exposure to the drug
tolerance that results from the reduction in the amount of a drug getting to its sites of action
tolerance resulting from a reduction in the reactivity of the nervous system to a drug
the illness brought on by the elimination from the body of a drug on which the person is physically dependent
being in a state in which the discontinuation of drug taking will induce withdrawal symptoms
habitual drug users who continue to use a drug despite its adverse effects on their health and social life, and despite their repeated efforts to stop using it
Contingent Drug Tolerance
drug tolerance that develops as a reaction to the experience of the effects of drugs rather than to drug exposure alone
stimuli that arise from within the body
experimental design used to demonstrate contingent drug tolerance; the experimental group receives the drug before each of a series of behavioral tests and the control group receives the drug after each test
stimuli that arise from outside the body
Conditioned Drug Tolerance
tolerance effects that are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the situation in which it has previously been administered
Conditional Compensatory Responses
physiological responses opposite to the effects of a drug that are thought to be elicited by stimuli that are regularly associated with experiencing the drug effects
major psychoactive ingredient of tabacco
an effective state in which there is a strong desire for the drug
the chest pain, labored breathing, wheezing, coughing, and heightened susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract commonly observed in tobacco smokers
A condition in which the blood vessels, especially those that are supplying the legs, are constricted whenever nicotine enters the blood stream, the ultimate result being gangrene and amputation
a drug or other chemical that causes birth defects
a drug that depresses neural activity
the phase of alcohol withdrawal syndrome characterized by hallucinations, delusions, agitation, confusion, hyperthermia, and tachycardia
a neuropsychological disorder that is common in alcoholics and whose primary symptom is sever memory loss
scarring, typically of the liver
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
a syndrome produced by prenatal exposure to alcohol and characterized by brain damage, mental retardation, poor coordination, poor muscle tone, low birth weight, retarded growth, and/or physical deformity
common hemp plant, which is the source for marijuana
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana
dark corklike material extracted from the resin in the leaves and flowers of Cannabis Sativa
a legal category of drugs, mostly opiates
the first endogenous endocannabinoid to be discovered and characterized
drugs that produce general increases in neural and behavioral activity
a potent catecholamine agonist and stimulant that is highly addictive
a potent, cheap, smokeable form of cocaine
binges of cocaine use
psychotic behavior observed during a cocaine spree, similar in many respects to paranoid schizophrenia
a stimulant drug whose effects are similar to those of cocaine
psychoactive drugs that produce feelings of empathy
molecules in the presynaptic membrane of dopaminergic neurons that attract dopamine molecules in the synaptic cleft and deposit them back inside the neuron
the sap that exudes from the seed pods of the opium poppy
major psychoactive ingredient in opium
a relatively weak psychoactive ingredient of opium
morphine, codeine, heroin, and other chemicals with similar structures or effects
drugs that reduce pain
Harrison Narcotics Act
passed in 1914, that made it illegal to sell or use opium, morphine, or cocaine in the US
a powerful semisynthetic opiate
Physical-Dependence theories of addiction
theories holding that the main factor that motivates drug addicts to keep taking drugs is the prevention or termination of withdrawal symptoms
addicts who have none of the drug to which they are addicted in their body and who are no longer experiencing withdrawal symptoms
Positive-Incentive Theories of addiction
theories holding that the primary factor in most cases of addiction is a craving for the pleasure-producing properties of drugs
the repeated performance of a response that delivers electrical stimulation to certain sites in the animal's brain
Mesotelencephalic dopamine system
the ascending projections of dopamine-releasing neurons from the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area of the mesencephalon into various regions of the telencephalon
midbrain nucleus whose neurons project via the nigrostriatal pathway to the striatum of the basal ganglia; it is part of the mesotelencephallic dopamine system and degenerates in cases of parkinson's disease
Ventral Tegmental Area
the midbrain nucleus of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system that is a major source of the mesoscorticolimbic pathway
nucleus of the ventral striatum and a major terminal of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway
component of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system that has cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area which project to various cortical and limbic sites
Drug Self-Administration Paradigm
a test of the addictive potential of drugs in which laboratory animals can inject drugs into themselves by pressing a lever
Conditioned Place-Preference Paradigm
a test that assesses a laboratory animal's preference for environments in which it has previously experiencing drug effects
to return to a diseased state after a period of improvement
a general inability to experience pleasure
anticipated pleasure associated with a particular action (such as taking a drug)
the amount of pleasure produced by an action
theory that addictions develop when drug use sensitizes the neural circuits mediating wanting of the drug- not necessarily liking of the drug
a single exposure to a formerly abused drug
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