A term coined by economist Goldman Sachs in 2001 for the fast-growing economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. They held a summit in June, 2009.
The ownership of private property and the market mechanism are replaced with the allocation of resources by the state bureaucracy.
The Communist Manifesto
Book written by Karl Marx stating his interpretation of history and vision for the future. He saw capitalism as an economic system that exploited workers and increased the gap between rich and poor. Believed eventually in a proletariat revolution
China's version of communism; it shares Marx's vision of equality and cooperation, but believes strongly in preserving China's peasant-based economy.
The ideas of communism created by Karl Marx. It predicted the demise of the capitalist West.
The communist political ideology that gave legitimacy to the rule of the Communist Party. It combined Marxism with Lenin's democratic centralism
the process of filling influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the Communist Party.
the ability for individuals to change their social status over the course of their lifetimes
vanguard of the revolution
a group of revolutionary leaders who could provoke a revolution in non-capitalist Russia
Some regions are more powerful than others, so power is devolved unequally across the country.
Russian who became a rich Oligarch by buying up Russian industries after the fall of Communism and the beginning of "shock therapy." He was exiled by the Russian government.
civil society in Russia
Russians did not generally have a lot of privacy free of state control, unlike the West. There are a limited number of private organizations.
Confederation of Independent States
An organization that weakly unites the fifteen former republics of the Soviet Union.
conflict in Chechnya
The largely Muslim population of this region in the Caucasus has been fighting for its independence
Constitution of 1993
Created the publicly-elected office of President, held in check by the Duma. It created a three-branch government. It is a semipresidential system and has a Constitutional Court
The judicial branch of the Russian Federation created by the Constitution of 1993. It is made up of nineteen members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Federation Council. It is in charge of making sure laws are constitutional.
Russia was defeated in this war in the mid-1800s. It convinced many that the tsars were moving Russia backward and needed reform.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation, it is the second-strongest party. The party emphasizes centralized planning and nationalism, and implies an intention to regain territories lost when the Soviet Union broke apart.
cultural heterogeneity in Russia
Russian diversity increased as Russia expanded its borders. Very diverse
Revolt by workers in 1825 resulting from frustration in the working class. It was crushed by Tsar Nicholas I
Started by Krushchev's secret speech, this was a process that led to reforms such as loosening government censorship of the press, decentralization of economic decision-making, and restructuring of the collective farms.
equality of result in Russia
People receive the same, regardless of work or effort. Russians dislike inequality in wealth or income
The upper legislative house. It was originally filled by governors and regional heads, but now the governors pick the council members. This was done in conjunction with the President being able to appoint the governors. It is made up of two members from each of the 89 administrative districts.
Gorbachev's three-pronged reform plan
Gorbachev planned to save the country through his programs of glasnost, democratization, and perestroika
Party secretary following Stalin's demise. He started the process of de-Stalinization.
A prominent former general who gathered a following before the 1996 election and had to be courted by Yeltsin so that Boris could remain President.
Third-largest party in Russia, and the most controversial... They are anti-semitic, and want to nuke Japan.
Led by Martov, they were communists who broke off from Lenin at the turn of the 20th century. They were generally for a larger group of revolutionaries than were the Bolsheviks.
The largest cleavage point in the Russian Federation, This is due to the fact that Russian territory covers so much and such diverse geography
Those foreign countries that are close to Russia, particularly former Warsaw Pact and USSR members.
New Economic Policy
Started by Lenin in 1920, it allowed for private ownership under centralized leadership.
Gorbachev's economic reform that transferred many economic powers from the central government to private hands and the market economy.
Peter the Great
Russian Tsar from 17th and 18th Centuries who was the first "Westernizer." Tried to modernize Russia on the western model
The group of around a dozen men who ran the country, They were the heart and soul of the Communist Party.
proportional representation in Russia
Russia's lower house, the Duma, is elected only on party lists, and parties can only get seats if they receive 7% or more of the national votes.
Second president of the Russian Federation, although he stepped down after his second term, he remains an influence through his position as PM
Army led by former Russian military leaders in the 1918 Civil War. They were supported by the Allied Powers.
Speech given by Krushchev in which he unveils a letter written by Lenin critical of Stalin's policies, particularly the purges
The two-pronged program of collectivization and industrialization. Executed with force and brutality by central planning
Government control of organizations, the government is "channeling" the voice of the people. Interest groups are controlled by the government.
United Russia Party
Founded as a merger of parties to support Putin after his election in 2000. (created in April, 2001). It is the major party in the Russian Federation.
The reformist party that best stands for pro-democracy. Led by Grigori Yavlinski, it does best with the intellectuals.