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The term fertility refers to:

the level of reproduction in a society.

A sociologist notes that women in the United States are choosing to have careers rather than produce families. This sociologist is studying:


What factors capture the attention of sociologists more than other scientific disciplines when studying population rates and trends?

Social factors-norms, values and social patterns of a society.

Fertility is influenced by a person's:

age of entry into sexual unions, and religious values that guide a particular culture.

What discipline draws upon several components of population—including size, composition, and territorial distribution—in order to understand the social consequences of population change?


During the 1900s, blacks migrated from rural southern states to northern urban areas. They brought with them high birthrates, which are characteristic of rural residents, and they settled in congested inner-city communities. What sociological specialist would examine the social consequences of these migration patterns and birthrates?

Thomas Malthus

What two major social institutions were strongly criticized by Thomas Robert Malthus?

church and slavery

Thomas Malthus argued that population expands by a progression of:


The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that there would be a world population crisis because the:

even though the food supply will increase, it will not increase nearly enough to meet the needs of an expanding world population.

What did Thomas Robert Malthus suggest as the best method to control population?

postpone marriage

In the view of Karl Marx, the cause of social ills was not rising world population but rather:


Karl Marx believed that capitalism,________,was the cause of social ills.

not the rising population

Demographer Paul Ehrlich is considered to be_____,Malthusian.


Paul Ehrlich's view on population reflects that world population growth is

outstretching natural resources

Paul Ehrlich's view on population reflects that developed countries


Advocates of the neo-Malthusian view differ from Thomas Malthus in that they favor:

birth control

Neo-Malthusians condemn developed nations, which, despite their low birthrates, consume a disproportionately large share of world resources. This position reflects agreement with which sociological perspective?


The largest factor contributing to illness and death among children in developing countries:


An enumeration or counting of the population is called a:


Governmental forms sent to all individuals and families that ask questions about the number and characteristics of all the people living in a dwelling is referred to as a(an):


What term is used to refer to records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces gathered through a registration system maintained by governmental units?

vital statistics

A sociologist is interested in Norwegian American history. In order to study this group the researcher examines historical records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces within the community where they settled. This data is an example of:

vital statistics

The number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year is known as:

birth rate

A sociologist notes that for every 1,000 residents, there are fewer children born in suburban communities in the United States than in inner-city ghettos or in rural communities. This sociologist is examining:

birth rate

The average number of children born alive to any woman, assuming that she conforms to current fertility rates, is known as:

total fertility rate[FTR]

The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year is known as the:

death rate

What term refers to the number of deaths of infants less than 1 year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year?

infant mortality rate

The measuring of a nation's infant mortality rate serves to indicate:

a society's level of healthcare; it reflects prenatal nutrition, delivery procedures, and infant screening measures.

The median number of years a person can be expected to live under current mortality conditions is known as:

life expectancy

At birth, Calvin was expected to live 68 years. However, as he successfully survived childhood illnesses and as medical science improved its knowledge and treatment of various diseases, he learned that he could expect to live to be 77 years old. During Calvin's life, his_______increased.

life expectancy

Members of which nation have the shortest life expectancy?

developing countries, including Zimbabwe

The difference between births and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants, per 1,000 population, is known as:

growth rate

A spatial or political unit of social organization that gives people a sense of belonging, based either on shared residence in a particular place or on a common identity is called


A community is defined as:

a unit of social organization, either special or political, that gives people a sense of belonging.

Little Italy, Chinatown, and Harlem would be considered examples of three______in New York City.


What type of city has only a few thousand people living within its borders, a relatively closed class system, and limited mobility?

Preindustrial city

A preindustrial city is characterized as having:

a relatively closed class system, and limited mobility.

What type of city is characterized by relatively large size, open competition, an open class system, and elaborate specialization in the manufacturing of goods?

Industrial city

A city in which global finance and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy is known as a (an):

postindustrial city

What type of city would New York City most likely be since it is considered the information and financial capital of the world?


Louis Wirth argued that a relatively large and permanent settlement leads to distinctive patterns of behavior, which he called:


Louis Wirth suggested that urbanism restricts a person's attention to:

the primary groups to which they are emotionally attatched.

What area of study is concerned with the interrelationships among people in their spatial setting and physical environment?

human ecology

What area of study focuses on the interrelationships between people and their environment as they emerge in urban areas?

urban ecology

Urban ecology is considered a functionalist theory because it:

emphasizes that different elements in urban areas contribute to social stability.

Ernest Burgess developed the______theory.


What theory views urban growth as emerging from many centers of development, each of which may reflect a particular urban need or activity?

multiple-nuclei theory

What theory would argue that local decisions about housing and neighborhood schools reflect not only the interplay of a community's political and economic interests, but also the impact of the global economy on communities in the United States and other countries?


A view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth, and developing countries that are controlled and exploited, is known as:

World-systems analysis

What sociologist contributed to new urban sociology through his world systems analysis approach?

Immanuel Wallerstein

What is the best definition of health, according to the World Health Organization?

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

An individual determines whether or not he or she is healthy based on:

the basis of criteria established by themselves, relatives, friends, co-workers, and medical practitioners.

The concept of the sick role is associated with the_______theory.


A sick role is:

expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill.

What sociologist outlined the behavior expected of people who are "sick?"

Talcott Parsons

An individual's assessment of whether he or she is healthy or ill may be related to his or her:

Gender, age, social class, and ethnic group.

Sociologist Eliot Friedson has likened the position of medicine to

that of state religions yesterday-it has an officially approved monopoly of the right to define health and illness and to treat illness.

The medicalization of society refers to:

the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control

A physician is often brought into court to give expert testimony to validate an individual's drug addiction or alcohol dependency. This testimony and the weight that it carries is an example of:

medicalization of society

Medicine serves as an agent of social control. It has even attempted to guard its jurisdiction by placing health care professionals such as chiropractors and nurse-midwives outside the realm of acceptable medicine. What sociological perspective would likely view medicine in this manner?


In examining health, illness, and medicine as a social institution, what sociological perspective generally focuses on micro-level study of the roles played by health care professionals and patients?


What sociological perspectives would focus on patient and doctor relationships and the manner in which both collectively provide diagnosis and treatment for health needs?


In the United States, the label "person with AIDS" can be considered a_____status.


Social epidemiology is the study of

the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population.

Incidence refers to:

the number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period, usually a year.

Polio is a disease that was almost eradicated, but there are still new cases that appear due to the failure to immunize all children. Researchers keep close tabs on how many new cases of this disease occur each year in the hope that it will soon cease to exist. This enumeration is an example of


Prevalence refers to:

the total number of cases a specific disorder that exist at a given time. [HIV/AIDS]

Morbidity rates are:

when incidence figures are presented as rates, or as the number reports of disorder per 100,000 people.

Mortality rates are:

the incidence of death in a given population.

Research in the United States and other countries has consistently shown that people with lower incomes have

higher rates of mortality and disability than others.

What sociological theorist suggests that capitalist societies such as the United States care more about maximizing profits than they do about the health and safety of industrial workers?

Karl Marx

What ethnic or racial group has the highest infant mortality rate?

blacks/african american

Mexican Americans may interpret their illnesses according to traditional practices and seek treatment in the form of curanderismo, which refers to:

a form of holistic health care and healing.

In comparison with men's health, women have lower rates of:

heart disease, lung cancer, emphysema, cirrhosis of the liver.

The largest amount of air pollution comes from:

emissions from automobiles

The benefits of carpooling during the Olympics in Los Angeles in 1984 produced:

a 12 percent drop in ozone layers.

What do Paul and Anne Ehrlich suggest is the central factor in environmental deterioration?

the pressure of world growth

Barry Commoner, a biologist, contends the primary cause of environmental ills is the increasing use of:

technological innovations that are destructive to the environment-among them, plastics, detergents, synthetic fibers, pesticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers.

Riley Dunlap argues that the environment serves three basic functions for humans:

1. The environment provides the resources essential for life-they include air, water, and materials used to create shelter, transportation, and other necessities.
2. the environment serves as a waste repository-more so than other living species, humans produce a huge quality and variety of waste products-bottles, boxes, papers, sewage, and garbage.
3. the environment "houses" our species-it is our home, our living space, the place where we reside, work and play.

What sociological perspective would most likely suggest the natural environment provides resources essential for life, and that natural depletion of resources is consistent with survival by the fittest as part of a natural evolution?


What sociological perspective observes that less affluent nations are being forced to exploit their mineral deposits, forests, and fisheries in order to meet their obligations to developed nations?


Which critic of environmental policies notes that capitalist societies have increasing demands for products, for obtaining natural resources at minimal costs, and for manufacturing products as quickly and cheaply as possible—no matter what the long-term environmental consequences will be?

Alan Schnaiberg

A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards is called environmental:

enviromental justice

Environmental justice is defined as a:

a legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities and the lower classes are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards.

Social change refers to:

significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture.

________refers to a significant alteration in behavior patterns and culture over time.

social change

_______is used by sociologists to refer to organized collective activities aimed at bringing about fundamental changes in existing society?

social movements

Listen to the national news on a major television network. Give three examples from the news of a "social movement"


_____refers to the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities.

relative deprivation

Middle management workers in a corporation who are discontented because they cannot afford the luxury cars or expensive homes that their bosses have. This is an example of


______refers to the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel?

Resource mobilization

Sociologist________argued that in order to sustain social protest or resistance, there must be an "organizational base and continuity of leadership" (resource mobilization theory)?

Anthony Oberschall

According to Karl Marx, false consciousness is:

attitudes that did not reflect workers' objective position, in order to organize a revolutionary movement.

What sociological perspective would likely stress that social movements should require leaders to sharpen the awareness of the oppressed, who may suffer from false consciousness?


What sociological perspective would most likely study the new social roles assumed by activists within a social movement?


What sociological perspective would likely be interested in the labels attached to activists associated with a social movement such as a feminist student referred to as a "bra burner"?

new social movements

Organized collective activities that address values and social identities as well as improvements in the quality of life are called:

new social movements

New social movements emphasize

social movements arise when people are motivated by value issues and social identity questions.

An environmental social movement that focuses on the interconnection of all the world's people and resources is an example of a_____social movement.


What sociological perspective would likely suggest that members of new social movements tend to mobilize as they reject statements made by established authority figures, including scientists and technical authorities?


What theory of social change holds that society is moving in a definite direction?

evolutionary theory

Evolutionary theory states that social change is moving in a______direction.


__________'s pioneering work in biological evolution contributed to nineteenth-century theories of social change. According to his approach, there has been a continuing progression of successive life forms.

Charles Darwin

Early social evolutionary theorists believed that their own behavior and culture were more_______than those of earlier civilizations.


Auguste Comte saw societies as moving forward in their thinking from_______to__________.

the scientific method.

Émile Durkheim contended that societies progressed from_______to

more complex forms of social organization.

________maintained that society progressed from simple to more complex forms of social organization.

Emile Durkheim

The writings of Auguste Comte and Émile Durkheim are examples of______evolutionary theory.


What two theorists mentioned in the textbook have taken a unilinear evolutionary position on social change?

Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim

A theorist suggests that all of the world's societies have or will progress from preindustrial to industrial to postindustrial to postmodern forms of social organization. This view represents______evolutionary theory.


Unilinear evolutionary theory states that social change:

unilinear evolutionary theories, which maintain that all societies pass through the same sequence of stages of evolution to reach the same destiny.

What approach contends that all societies pass through the same successful stages of evolution and inevitably reach the same end?

evolutionary theory

The expectation that African and Latin American countries will pass through all the developmental stages that were experienced by the United States and European industrial societies would be an example of:

evolutionary theory

A social scientist focuses on several small industrial societies and suggests that there are already signs that these societies will imitate the United States and other large formerly industrial societies and become postindustrial societies that have service-oriented economies. Which theory of social change is this social scientist utilizing?

evolutionary theory

What evolutionary approach contends that change can occur in several ways and does not inevitably lead in the same direction?

Multilinear evolutionary theory

At one point in time, most African territories were colonies of European powers. After colonization, these new African nations all evolved, but in many different directions. This illustrates which theory of social change?

multilinear evolutionary theory

Talcott Parsons viewed society as naturally being in a state of


Talcott Parsons's functionalist view of society as tending toward a state of stability or balance is known as______model.


The equilibrium model of social change was developed by

Talcott Parsons

Sociologist Talcott Parsons developed the_______model of social change


What sociological perspective argues that when changes occur in one part of a society, there must be adjustments in other parts?


The equilibrium model of social change views society as:

changes that occur in one part, adjustments , must be made in other parts. If adjustments are not made, society's equilibrium will be threatened.

The family system has changed in the United States over the last few decades. In particular, child rearing, which was once the sole province of the mother, is now being shared with fathers, other relatives, day care centers, school systems, babysitters, and an endless list of surrogates who assume responsibility for this important task. This social change, which helps to maintain society's stability, is known as


The role of women in the family in the United States has changed dramatically in the last 50 years. Rather than being traditional homemakers, women have furthered their education and developed careers. This change in the family has necessitated adaptive changes in school systems, corporations, churches, and other facets of society to provide childcare services. This situation reflects which view of social change?

Equilibrium model of social change

In Parsons's equilibrium model of social change, what concept does he use to indicate the increasing complexity of social organization?


In Parsons's equilibrium model of social change, differentiation refers to:

the increasing complexity of social organization.

In Parsons's equilibrium model, he uses_________as a concept to note that one feature of social change is that social institutions become more specialized in their purposes.

adaptive upgrading

Those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change and who have a stake in maintaining the status quo are called

vested interest

If the United States Congress passed strict anticigarette laws that banned their sale anywhere in the country, it would create serious problems for cigarette manufacturers, retailers, tobacco growers, tobacco farm workers, truckers, and many other employees in the cigarette industry. Each of these groups would probably oppose this legislation because they are examples of

vested interest

What factors do conflict theorists suggest that capitalist firms would likely utilize in order to meet the costs of complying with stricter safety standards?

They may resist social change by cutting corners or by pressuring the government to ease regulations.

What sociologist pointed out that nonmaterial culture typically must respond to changes in material culture?

William Ogburn

_______refers to the period of maladjustment during which the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions.

Cultural lag

Large families are no longer economically necessary, nor are they commonly endorsed by social norms; but certain religious faiths, among them Roman Catholicism, continue to extol large families and to disapprove of using contraception to limit family size. This example illustrates William Ogburn's concept of

cultural lag

Various religious groups and their followers are very upset about advances in reproductive technology (e.g., birth control pills, abortion pills, in vitro fertilization, and genetic engineering). This conflict illustrates William Ogburn's concept of______.

cultural lag

The_______revolution led to the emergence of Luddites.


Rebellious craft workers in nineteenth-century England who destroyed new factory machinery as part of their resistance to the new industrial revolution were known as:


The term sabotage is derived from French workers throwing________into factory machinery to destroy it.

wooden shows[sabots]

Neo-Luddites are opposed to the______changes that occurred during the industrial revolution, the postindustrial period, and the postmodern period


"Neo-Luddites" have questioned the incessant expansion of


Cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires is referred to as


The laptop computer, wireless telephones, pagers, and laser eye surgery are all examples of:


The Internet evolved from a computer system built by________in 1962.

the U.S Defense Department

The Internet evolved from a computer system developed by the U.S. Defense Department to enable scholars and workers to continue with work in the event of______.

nuclear attack

______nations does Immanuel Wallerstein suggest has a virtual monopoly on information technology in his world system analysis.


Offshoring is a type of


A recent trend in globalization is that U.S. companies are shifting_____to developing countries.


What sociological perspective would most likely suggest that computer and video technology has facilitated supervision, control, and even domination by employers or government?


What sociological perspective would most likely be interested in the socializing effects of Internet communications, which might ultimately reduce face-to-face communications between people?


A new technique of using technology to increase food production and alter plant genes is called

genetic engeneering

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