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NWEA Math
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Gravity
Terms in this set (53)
sum
answer to an addition problem
difference
answer to a subtraction problem
product
answer to a multiplication problem
quotient
answer to a division problem
factor
a number being multiplied
perimeter
distance around any figure
area
number of square units needed to cover the surface of a figure
variable
a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number
power
a number that can be expressed using a base and exponent
squared
a number multiplied by itself
cubed
a number multiplied by itself three times
prime number
a whole number greater than 1 with exactly two unique factors, 1 and the number itself (e.g. 17, 29)
composite number
a whole number greater than 1 with more than two unique factors (e.g. 6, 15)
prime factorization
process by which a composite number is written as a product of its prime factors.
reciprocals
two numbers whose product is 1
algebraic expression
an expression that may contain numbers, operations, and one or more variables
term
a part of an algebraic expression that may be a number, a variable, or the product of a number and variable
coefficient
the numerical factor of a term (a number right in front of a variable)
constant
a term without a variable
Simplify
an expression written so there are no parentheses and no like terms
like terms
terms that have the same variable raised to the same exponent
commutative property
changing the order of addends or factors does not change the sum or product 4 + 3 = 3 + 4; 5(2) = 2(5)
associative property
changing the grouping of addends or factors does not change the sum or product 2 + (3 + 4) = 3 + (2 + 4); 2 x (3 x 4) = 3 x (2 x 4)
addition property of zero (identity property of addition)
the sum of any number and 0 is that number a + 0 = a
multiplication property of one (identity prop. of mult.)
the product of any number and 1 is that number c x 1 = c
distributive property
multiply a sum or difference by a number; multiply each number of the sum or difference by the number on the outside of the parentheses a(b + c) = ac + bc; d(e - f) = de - df
area of a rectangle
A = LW
area of a square
A= s²
perimeter of a rectangle
P = 2L + 2W or P = 2(L + W)
area of a triangle
A=½bh or A=bh/2
area of a trapezoid
A=½h(b1+b2)
parallelogram
A quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel
trapezoid
a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides
ratio
a comparison of two quantities, frequently written in fraction form or using a colon i.e. 5 : 3
rate
a ratio that compares two quantities with different units
unit rate
a rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit; a rate that has a denominator of one
coordinate plane
A coordinate system formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis.
origin
the point on the coordinate plane where the x-axis and y-axis intersect
quadrant
one of the 4 regions (sections) created on a coordinate plane
x-axis
horizontal number line on a coordinate plane
y-axis
vertical number line on a coordinate plane
absolute value
the distance a number is from zero on a number line
reflection
flipping a point or figure over the x-axis or y-axis
rule reflecting in the x-axis
x-coordinate stays the same; y-coordinate goes to its opposite
rule reflecting in the y-axis
x-coordinate goes to its opposite; y-coordinate stays the same
distance equation
d = rt or d = st
inequality
mathematical sentence that compares expressions that compares two quantities using symbols <, >, ≤, ≥
surface area of a prism
sum of the area of the bases and the lateral sides
surface area of a pyramid
sum of the area of the base and the lateral sides
mean
One of the Measures of Center - sum of a data set divided by the number of data values, also known as average of a data set
median
One of the Measures of Center - the middle value in a set of numbers that are listed in order of least to greatest
mode
One of the Measures of Center - the value that appears most often in a data set
range
Measure of Variation - difference between the highest value and lowest value of a data set
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