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Chapter 12 - Maslow's Self-Actualization Position
According to Maslow, human nature is
innately good or, at the very least, neutral.
In Maslow's view, the tendency toward self-actualization is
weak in all human beings.
Two sets of needs that are rooted in our biology are
growth and deficiency needs.
Once the basic needs have been gratified, the
needs for cognitive understanding and self-actualization may become salient.
are nonstriving and nonjudgemental.
both B- and D-cognition.
are more problem-centered than nonactualizers.
have a number of weaknesses, as well as many strengths.
For Maslow, the healthy society is one that
provides the necessities of life and allows the individual maximum choices.
In Maslow's theorizing, the
basic needs are arranged hierarchically.
A person's curiosity about himself or herself and the working of the environment is aroused after the gratification of
The state of being that involves experiences of self-validation, nonstriving, temporariness and nonjudgemental opinions is
the D-cognition or arousal of safety needs as well as B-cognition
Self-actualizers are not
less problem-centered than nonactualizers.
Which of the following is a B-need (Being need)?
Dietch examined the idea of mature love in college students and found that
self-actualizing students were less resentful toward their ex-lovers than those who were less actualizing.
Research by Dominguez and Carton on parenting style and self-actulization showed that self-actualizing students reported that their parents used a(n)
authoritative parenting style to discipline them.
A danger associated with B-cognition is that
the self-actualizing person will be too tolerant of others.
In most of the humanistic theories, the environment (society)
is often seen as then enforcer of rules and regulation that stifle human growth.
In Keutzer's survey students' peak experiences, the highest percentage of students endorsed
looking at the beauties of nature as triggers to peak experiences.
If John is continually worrying about earning enough money to prevent him and his family from being evicted by their landlord, we could say he is trying to gratify his
In their research on "fear of success" in women, Crawford and Maracek argue that
females unfortunately are judged by the members of society in relation to male norms and values.
Huland, in his research on "fear of success" in females, maintains that
success is often sacrificed by females for more important goals.
In the study by Kasser and his colleagues, individuals who were
very involved in the community were more self-actualizing.
Maslow maintains that self-actualizing people
sleep well and enjoy themselves without regret, shame, or guilt.
In Maslow's view, self-actualizing people
do not feel excessively guilty about their shortcomings.
In judging its scientific worth, Maslow's theory
has high heuritic value.
According to Piedmont, one of the problems with research on the "fear of success" phenomenon is that
many researchers have assumed that the fear of success motive is present in all females.
Carver and Baird found that individuals who were pursuing
materialistic goals for extrinsic reasons ended up being less self-actualizing.
The ultimate goal of Maslow's theorizing about human nature was to
establish a biologically based, universal value system.
Janice needs frequent signs of appreciation and approval from her friends. Maslow would claim that she is seeking gratification of her
Gretchen feels she must continually strive to master tasks so that she can feel competent. Maslow would say that she is seeking gratification of her
To discover the unique characteristics of self-actualizing people, Maslow relied on
In the research by Carvallo and Gabriel on the need for belongingness, it was found that
students with an avoidant attachment style experienced increased self-esteem when accepted by other group members.
The most powerful basic needs in Maslow's needs hierarchy are
According to Maslow, during peak experiences, people
transcend their own selfishness.