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Review Unit 4
Terms in this set (53)
The Corrupt Bargain
4 main "Republican" candidates in the election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. No candidate won the majority of electoral votes. Clay convinced the house to elect John Quincy Adams as PResident. Adams agreed to make Clay the Secretary of State for getting him into office. People felt that there was a "corrupt bargain" because Andrew Jackson had the popular vote
Andrew Jackson's nickname
The spoils system
Jackson believed in appointing his own staff comprised of his supporters. Rewarded political supporters with public office. This had several negative consequences. Often, the individuals appointed were unskilled, and sometimes incapable fulfilling their responsibilities. Corrupt individuals were placed in offices that they abused, stealing millions from the government.
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
John C. Calhounn
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
South Carolina Exposition
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Black Hawk War
Chief Black Hawk of Sauk tribe, led rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox ppl murdered; tribes removed to areas west of Mississippi
when a desperate Biddle called in his bank's loans, evidently hoping to illustrate the bank's importance by producing a minor financial crisis. A number of wobblier banks were driven to the wall by this, but Jackson's resolution remained firm.
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
The Divorce Bill
Van Buren wanted to separate the government from banking. An independent treasury would be created.
the central character in the Leatherstocking Tales, by James Fenimore Cooper. Natty, a settler, is taught by the Native Americans and adopts their way of life
The captain of the ship the Pequod in Moby Dick by James Melville. Is obsessed with capturing the great white whale, Moby Dick.
painter and student of Native American life who was among the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature; proposed the idea of a national park
Ancient Order of Hibernians
A semisecret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords, served in America as a benevolent society, aiding the downtrodden.
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
Most notorious political machine; NY city; Marcy Tweed also know as Boss Tweed became head in 1863
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867)
improved the sewing machine
early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
invented the steel plow
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
laid first transatlantic cable
John Jacob Astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
Written by influential Ohioan William McGuffey, a powerful teacher-preacher. The grade-school readers sold 122 million copies. McGuffey's Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
starts American Peace Society
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Seneca Fall Convention
In 1848, the first national woman's rights convention; the site where the declaration of sentiments was written
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theory New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
It was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. It was a group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. They practiced polygamy, communal property and communal raising of children. (Utopian society).
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Naturalist who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat. Birds of America received considerable popularity.
Stephen Foster was a white Pennsylvanian that wrote, ironically, the most famous black songs. H lived from 1826 to 1864. His one excursion into the South occurred in 1852, after he had published "Old Folks at Home". Foster made a valuable contribution to American Folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of the slaves.
group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
William Cullen Bryant
a puritan who wrote "Thanatopsis" at the age of 16, which was one of the first high quality poems produced in the US, he also edited the "NY Evening Post"
a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet and professor of modern languages at Harvard. Lived 1807-1882. During a period which was dominated in the literary field by Transcendentalists, Longfellow was an urbane poet who catered to the upper classes and the more educated of the citizens. He was also popular in Europe, and is the only American poet to have a bust in Westminster Abbey.
John Greenleaf Whittier
an American poet of the mid-19th century, the Fighting Quaker, the uncrowned poet laureate of the anti-slavery crusade, and the poet of human freedom. (Snowbound)
Louisa May Alcott
Little Women; Novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her own struggling transcendentalist family
Gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
"Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America
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