24 terms

Chapter 07 - AP Environmental Science (Friedland)

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Demography
The study of human populations and population trends.
Demographer
A scientist in the field of demography.
Immigration
The movement of people into a country or region, from another country or region.
Emigration
The movement of people out of a country or region.
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The number of births per 1,000 individuals per year.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.
Doubling time
The number of years it takes a population to double.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
An estimate of the average number of children that each women in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.
Replacement-level fertility
The total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size.
Developed country
A country with relatively high levels of industrialization and income.
Developing country
A country with a relatively low levels of industrialization and income.
Life expectancy
The average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country.
Infant mortality
The number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.
Child mortality
The number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births.
Net migration rate
The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people in a country.
Age structure diagram
A visual representation of the number of individuals within specific age groups for a country, typically expressed for males and females.
Population pyramid
An age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries.
Population momentum
Continued population growth after growth reduction measures have been implemented.
Theory of demographic transition
The theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth.
IPAT equation
An equation used to estimate the impact of the human lifestyle on the environment: Impact = population x affluence x technology.
Family planning
The practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control.
Affluence
The state of having plentiful wealth including the possession of money, goods, or property.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
A measure of the value of all products and services produced in one year in one country.
Urban area
An area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile).