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requires increased carbon dioxide

obligate anaerobe

harm by molecular oxygen grow in atmospher without molecular oxygen

aerotolerant anaerobe

grow without oxygen but are not harmed by its presence

obligate aerobe

requires oxygen

facultative anaerobe

use oxygen when available but also able to grow without oxygen


grow in LOW oxygen concentrations (lower than room air)

Which organism is not correctly matched to its energy source?
A) Photoheterotroph - light
B) Photoautotroph - CO2
C) Chemoautotroph - Fe2+
D) Chemoheterotroph - glucose
E) Chemoautotroph - reduced inorganic compounds

B) Photoautotroph - CO2

When oxygen is unavailable, Halobacterium produces ATP by


The term facultative anaerobe refers to an organism that

Uses oxygen or grows without oxygen

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Thermophile - growth at 37eC

Which enzyme catalyzes the reaction: 2H2O2 > 2H2O + O2?


During which growth phase will gram-positive bacteria be most susceptible to penicillin?

Log phase

The addition of which of the following to a culture medium will neutralize acids?


Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans?

Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods

The nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria use organic compounds as

Carbon sources.

Which of the following is/are true about the carbon cycle? (Chooses all that are correct).
A) Photosynthesis is the first step in the carbon cycle in photoautotrophs.
B) All living organisms contain large amounts of carbon.
C) Photosynthetic organisms fix or incorporate carbon dioxide into organic matter using energy from sunlight.
D) Organisms that are photosynthetic include green plants, animals, and some bacteria.
E) The carbon atoms of carbon dioxide are transferred from organism to organism up the food chain.

A, B, C, E

organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy?

Thiobacillus: H2S > S0

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Rhizobium - legumes
B) Bacillus thuringiensis - insect control
C) Thiobacillus ferrooxidans - uranium mining
D) Frankia - alders
E) Lichen - an alga and a bacterium non-photosynthetic bacterium


The addition of untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to


Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of

The amount of organic matter present in a water sample.

terms describes NO3- > N2?


terms describes NH4+ > NO2- > NO3-?


Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are capable of


do not fix atmospheric nitrogen?


Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in

Water treatment.

not a habitat for an extremophile?

The Atlantic Ocean

Sedimentation of sludge occurs in

Primary sewage treatment.

Bioremediation of petroleum

Takes place under aerobic conditions.

Bacteria can increase the Earth's temperature by

Producing CH4, which is a greenhouse gas.

Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched? (select all that apply)
A) AgNO3 (silver nitrate) & newborns' eyes
B) Merthiolate & open wounds
C) CuSO4 (Copper Sulfate)& algicide
D) H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) & open wounds

B, D

Which of the following best describes the pattern of microbial death?
A) The cells in a population die at a constant rate.
B) All the cells in a culture die at once.
C) All of the cells in a culture are never killed.
D) The pattern varies depending on the antimicrobial agent.
E) The pattern varies depending on the species.


des not contain heavy metal?


least effective antimicrobial agent?


Bacterial death will result from damage to which of the following structures?
A) Cell wall
B) Plasma membrane
C) Proteins
D) Nucleic acids
E) All of the above


hich of the following antibiotics are used to treat fungal infections? 1. Aminoglycosides 2. Cephalosporins 3. Griseofulvin 4. Polyenes 5. Bacitracin
A) 1, 2, and 3
B) 3 and 4
C) 3, 4, and 5
D) 4 and 5
E) All of the antibiotics


The antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are


infectious disease in third world nations

- contaminated water
- lack of education
-poor hygine

Select each factor that would influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments. Choose all that are correct.
A) The dosage of microbes (number of organisms to start with)
B) Temperature of environment
C) Nature of suspending medium and presence of organic matter
D) Time of exposure
E) Microbial characteristics



Penicillium & Conidia

Sexual & Asexual

Macrocystis porifera
Laminaria japonica

All of the following statements about fungi are true except
A) All fungi are unicellular.
B) All fungi have eukaryotic cells.
C) Fungi are heterotrophic.
D) Most fungi are aerobic.
E) Few fungi are pathogenic to humans.


Which of the following statements about normal microbiota is NOT true?
A) The normal microbiota can prevent pathogens from causing an infection.
B) Normal microbiota have a commensalistic or mutualistic relationship with the human cells that support their growth.
C) Transient microbiota are microbes that are present for various periods and then disappear.
D) Normal microbiota may become opprotunistic pathogens under special conditions.
E) Disease is a normal relationship between normal microbiota and human host cells.


Fungi, more often than bacteria, are responsible for decomposition of plant material because
A) They are aerobic.
B) They can tolerate low-moisture conditions.
C) They prefer a neutral environment (pH 7).
D) They have a fermentative metabolism.
E) They cannot tolerate high osmotic pressure.


Which of the following statements is not true?
A) A lichen doesn't exist if the fungal and algal partners are separated.
B) Lichens are parasites.
C) In a lichen, the alga produces carbohydrates.
D) In a lichen, the fungus provides the holdfast.
E) Lichens are important soil producers


Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Thallus - hyphae
B) Aerial mycelium - vegetative mycelium
C) Coenocytic - lacking cross-walls
D) Septate - with cross-walls


Which of the following statements is false?
A) Fungi produce sexual spores.
B) Fungi produce asexual spores.
C) Fungal spores are used in identification of fungi.
D) Fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions.
E) Fungal spores are for reproduction.


Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Dinoflagellates - paralytic shellfish poisoning
B) Brown algae - algin
C) Red algae - agar
D) Diatoms - petroleum
E) Green


Which of the following statements about algae is true?
A) All algae are unicellular.
B) Algae are plants.
C) All algae are green.
D) Algae are photoautotrophs.
E) All of the above.


Which of the following is not caused by an alga?
A) Domoic acid intoxication
B) Possible estuary-associated syndrome
C) Cyclosporidial diarrhea
D) Paralytic shellfish poisoning
E) Ciguatera


Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A) Cause diseases.
B) Are found in a certain location on the host.
C) Are acquired by direct contact.
D) Are present for a relatively short time.
E) None of the above.


Match the following choices to the statements below:

A. naturally acquired active immunity
B. artifically acquired active immunity
C. artifically acquired passive immunity
D. naturally acquired passive immunity
E. innate immunity

C: The type of protection a person needs after being bitten by a poisonous snake
B:The type of protection a Peace Corps volunteer has after being vaccinated
A: The type of protection a person has after recovering from mumps
D: The type of protection an newborn receives from its mother
E: A human's protection against feline leukemia

organisms doesn't produce an exotoxin?

Salmonella typhi

The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to

Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.

Which of the following statements is true?
A) Interferon is an antiviral protein.
B) Interferon promotes phagocytosis.
C) Interferon causes cell lysis.
D) Interferon acts against specific viruses.
E) Interferon attacks invading viruses.


Lysozyme is not found in
A) Tears.
B) Saliva.
C) Perspiration.
D) Nasal secretions.
E) None of the above.


Complement activation results in all of the following except
A) Activation of C3b.
B) Immune adherence.
C) Cell lysis.
D) Opsonization.
E) Complement activation results in all of the above


Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from


Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta.

Naturally acquired passive immunity

The specificity of an antibody is due to

The variable portions of the H and L chains.

Which statement is incorrect?
A) The variable region of a heavy chain binds with antigen.
B) The variable region of a light chain binds with antigen.
C) The Fc region attaches to a host cell.
D) The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all classes of antibodies.
E) None of the above.


Antigens coated with antibodies are susceptible to


Match the following terms to their definitions
A. pandemic
B. endemic
C. sporatic
D. epidemic

D:a disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time

A:a disease acquired by many hosts in a short time worldwide
B:a disease that is constantly present in a given population
C:a disease that occurs occasionally in a population

Match the definition with the term regarding the extent to which a host's body is affected by infection or disease.
A. toxemia
B. bacteremia
C. systemic infection
D. viremia
E. local infection
F. septemia

E:microorganisms are limited to a relatively small area of the body
C:microorganisms or their products are spread throughout the body
B:bacteria in the blood
F:bacteria multiplying in the blood
A:presence of toxins in the blood
D:presence of virus in the blood

The major significance of Koch's work was that

Microorganisms cause disease.

Which type of infection can cause septicemia?

Focal infection

All of the following are communicable diseases except
A) Malaria.
C) Tuberculosis.
D) Tetanus.
E) Typhoid fever.


Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Malaria - vector
B) Salmonellosis - vehicle transmission
C) Syphilis - direct contact
D) Influenza - droplet transmission
E) None of the above


A sexually transmitted disease.

Direct contact

A needlestick.


Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?
A) They occur in compromised patients
B) They may be caused by opportunists
C) They may be caused by drug-resistant bacteria
D) They may be caused by normal microbiota
E) The patient was infected before hospitalization


The most likely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague between humans.

Droplet transmission

Haemophilus bacteria require heme protein produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. This is an example of


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