In terms of biosocial development, the beginning of adulthood was previously considered to be:
age 18 or 21
During young adulthood, all body systems—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive systems—function:
An example of homeostasis is the:
increase in heart rate and breathing that occurs during physical exertion
The term "organ reserve" refers to:
the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress.
Assumptions about the purpose of sex are usually mutual when partners:
were raised in the same religion and culture.
Within 20 years, primarily because of the sexual activities of young adults, _______ became a worldwide epidemic.
In the CARDIA study that followed 18- to 30-year-olds into middle age, those who were the least fit:
were four times as likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later
According to recent statistics, approximately how many emerging adults reach the standard of 30 minutes of exercise, five days a week?
Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug:
______ are the biggest substance abusers, but their illegal drug use drops much faster than their cigarette smoking or binge drinking
A large university is attempting to reduce student alcohol and nicotine use. A survey was distributed to all students, and the results were published in the student newspaper. Fewer students than anticipated drank and smoked, much to many students' surprise. The university conducted this research using the:
social norms approach
Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following aspects of life are most likely to advance moral thinking?
In one Defining Issues Test (DIT) the dilemma was the following: "A news reporter must decide whether to publish some old personal information that will damage a political candidate." The Netherlands research cited in the textbook found that:
for emerging adults, moral thinking may produce moral behavior
Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of ______ faith.
Identify the true statement about developmentalists' view of faith and religion.
It progresses from a self-centered perspective to a many-sided, altruistic view
According to Fowler's religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ______ view of life to a(n) ______ view.
simple, self centered, one sided, complex, unselfish
Which of the following personal facts correlates with depth and flexibility of thought in adulthood?
The first phase of college students' thinking is:
believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths
Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:
progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking
Which statement illustrated Perry's concept of Relativism Discovered?
Everyone has the right to an opinion when authorities don't know the right answer
Changes observed in college students over the past 30 years include more students:
specializing in business and the professions
Which of the following statements about cohort effects regarding the effect of college on cognitive development is true?
the increased diversity of the college atmosphere probably helps to enhance cognitive development
Colleges that make use of their diversity by including ______ help students stretch their understanding not only of differences and similarities among people but also of themselves.
cooperative education, class assignments and discussions, learning communities....all of the answers are correct
In the first year of college, learning and cognitive growth depend mostly on:
the student's motivation and engagement with education
Max is considered to be an emerging adult searching for his vocational identity. He has dropped in and out of college several times between the ages of 18 and 27, and he has held:
How do friends differ from family members?
friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions
If a man talks about his problems to a male friend, he is most likely to expect:
Friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because:
men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities
Which of the following statements about the qualities young adults seek from a romantic partner is true?
Culture greatly affects the qualities sought by individuals
For which of the following types of couples does the developmental pattern of intimacy, commitment, and passion differ from that of others?
couples in arranged marriages
Which of the following statistics is currently true in the United States?
The divorce rate is half the marriage rate
Which change has occurred over the past several decades in virtually every industrialized nation?
The number of unwed parents has increased dramatically
Heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:
Dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.
In demand/withdraw interactions, women tend to be more ______ and men more ______.
The notion that family members tend to be affected by all aspects of each other's lives describes:
What is enmeshment?
parents always knowing what their emerging adult children are doing or thinking?
Which of the following statements about hormone replacement therapy is true?
Researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its positive effects were invalid
Although it is still very common, the incidence of adult obesity has not increased in the United States since the year ______.
Implementation is quitting a habit according to plan. When is implementation most successful?
when tackling one habit at a time.
What is the term for the phenomenon that happens when a person's resolve to break a habit fades when faced with stress?
One biological reason why women tend to live longer, healthier lives than men is that:
the second X chromosome or extra estrogen protects them
A major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:
high socioeconomic status
In the United States, after age 35 the life span increases ______ years for each year of education.
The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low socioeconomic status:
tend to live as much as 30 years less than the 10 million healthiest Americans.
Who has the best chance of maintaining intellectual abilities into late adulthood?
Martin, who has a college education, a happy marriage, and a good retirement plan
Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is:
The ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words.
Which of the following statements about changes in intelligence is true?
Age-related declines are first noted for skills that require speed of response
Which of the following experiences can help improve people's ability on psychometric tests?
studying the dictionary
For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:
in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest
When developmentalists use the term "expert," they usually mean a person who:
is significantly better than others at performing a certain task
When the thought required for an action has become routine, and it appears that most aspects of the task are performed instinctively, the performance of the task is:
According to many developmentalists, the key to successful aging is:
the capacity to accommodate to changes over time.
Which of the following statements about age and expertise is true?
Expertise can overcome some effects of age but not others
Compared to adolescents, approximately how many adults consider themselves close to their siblings?
twice as many
The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:
After a decade or two, most married couples find that:
happiness increases as children become more independent
According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation comes:
generativity versus stagnation
Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments, because:
some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents
Which of the following statements regarding the middle generation as the sandwich generation is true?
Providing assistance to older and younger generations may be more a function of personality than of necessity.
Which of Maslow's stages emphasizes the importance of accomplishments in adulthood?
success and esteem
Between the ages of 25 and 42, the average worker in the United States has ______ separate employers.
Whether or not a worker has a nonstandard, flexible, or telecommuting schedule depends mostly on the worker's:
industry and status
Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that:
most visual and auditoy losses can be compensated for.
Which of the following statements about cellular aging is true?
Aging may be caused by the inevitable loss of the ability of cells to duplicate perfectly
Which statement about the immune system is correct?
Women tend to have a stronger immune systems than do men
When human cells are grown under laboratory conditions that encourage them to grow and divide, cells:
from human embryos stop dividing after about 50 divisions
If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:
For people who reach late adulthood in good health, the most important determinant of longevity may be:
their activities and attitudes
According to the textbook, what is one of the changes that happens to the brain during senescence?
Cerebral blood circulates more slowly
Which of the following statements is a possible explanation for greater brain activity in older adults?
Older adults compensate for losses by using more parts of their brains
The memory for recalling names tends to ___________ with age, while memory for vocabulary tends to _______________ with age.
An older adult would probably experience the most difficulty remembering:
the facts surrounding the 1948 presidential election
The part of the brain that shrinks more with age than do other parts of the brain is the:
Which of the following statements is characteristic of the memory of older adults?
Older adults are better at recognition than recall
For the average individual in late adulthood, traditional tests of intelligence demonstrate that:
cognitive abilities decline
Many researchers believe that Alzheimer disease actually begins ______ year(s) before diagnosis.
10 - 20
Abraham Maslow maintains that older adults are:
more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:
Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic
The three major stratification categories that can limit choice at every stage of life are:
age, gender, and ethnicity
Active engagement (volunteering and political activity) in society is related to:
gender and ethnicity
Which of the following statements about older people and religion is true?
older people are less likely to attend weekly religious services than are younger people
Who is most likely to be the healthiest and happiest at age 70?
Annette who is living with her husband
With regard to their grown children, most elderly people:
are more likely to give financial support than to receive it
Which of the following factors is listed in the textbook as affecting parent and adult child relationships?
Daughters feel stronger affection
Which of the following approaches do grandparents take in their relationships with their grandchildren?
Grandparents who are emotionally distant but who are honored, respected, and obeyed by grandchildren are considered to have which of the following grandparenting styles?
The style of grandparenting that generally brings the most satisfaction to grandparents in the United States is the ______ style.
Research indicates that having a partner and children is:
not essential for happiness in late adulthood
In 2010, what percentage of people over the age of 65 had broadband Internet connections at home?