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190 terms

Development Psychology Final

STUDY
PLAY
In terms of biosocial development, the beginning of adulthood was previously considered to be:
age 18 or 21
The beginning of adulthood is now considered to be:
age 25
During young adulthood, all body systems—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive systems—function:
optimally
Which of the following states is the goal of homeostasis?
equilibrium
An example of homeostasis is the:
increase in heart rate and breathing that occurs during physical exertion
The term "organ reserve" refers to:
the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress.
As we age, the resting heart rate:
remains stable
The most common time for males and females to have a baby is during:
young adulthood.
Assumptions about the purpose of sex are usually mutual when partners:
were raised in the same religion and culture.
Within 20 years, primarily because of the sexual activities of young adults, _______ became a worldwide epidemic.
HIV
Average well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of:
psychopathology.
Symptoms of depression do include:
trouble concentrating and sleeping.
In the CARDIA study that followed 18- to 30-year-olds into middle age, those who were the least fit:
were four times as likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later
According to recent statistics, approximately how many emerging adults reach the standard of 30 minutes of exercise, five days a week?
two-thirds
The ratio of a person's weight to height is that person's:
BMI
A body mass index between ______ and ______ is considered normal.
19; 25
A person's set point is affected by:
age, genes, diet, hormones, and exercise
Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug:
abuse.
______ are the biggest substance abusers, but their illegal drug use drops much faster than their cigarette smoking or binge drinking
Emerging adults
A large university is attempting to reduce student alcohol and nicotine use. A survey was distributed to all students, and the results were published in the student newspaper. Fewer students than anticipated drank and smoked, much to many students' surprise. The university conducted this research using the:
social norms approach
In comparison with adolescent thinking, adult thinking requires more:
flexibility
Stereotype threat is a:
form of self-predudice
A new idea that integrates an original idea and its opposite is referred to as a(n):
synthesis
The most advanced cognitive process is:
dialectical thought
A dialectical thinker is likely to recognize the:
changing nature of human relationships
Moral values are powerfully affected by circumstances including:
national background and culture
Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following aspects of life are most likely to advance moral thinking?
child rearing
In one Defining Issues Test (DIT) the dilemma was the following: "A news reporter must decide whether to publish some old personal information that will damage a political candidate." The Netherlands research cited in the textbook found that:
for emerging adults, moral thinking may produce moral behavior
Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of ______ faith.
synthetic-conventional
Identify the true statement about developmentalists' view of faith and religion.
It progresses from a self-centered perspective to a many-sided, altruistic view
According to Fowler's religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ______ view of life to a(n) ______ view.
simple, self centered, one sided, complex, unselfish
Which of the following personal facts correlates with depth and flexibility of thought in adulthood?
college education
The first phase of college students' thinking is:
believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths
Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:
progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking
Which statement illustrated Perry's concept of Relativism Discovered?
Everyone has the right to an opinion when authorities don't know the right answer
Changes observed in college students over the past 30 years include more students:
specializing in business and the professions
Which of the following statements about cohort effects regarding the effect of college on cognitive development is true?
the increased diversity of the college atmosphere probably helps to enhance cognitive development
Colleges that make use of their diversity by including ______ help students stretch their understanding not only of differences and similarities among people but also of themselves.
cooperative education, class assignments and discussions, learning communities....all of the answers are correct
In the first year of college, learning and cognitive growth depend mostly on:
the student's motivation and engagement with education
A type of identity that is almost impossible to achieve during adolescence is:
vocational identity
Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average adult in the United States:
has eight jobs
Max is considered to be an emerging adult searching for his vocational identity. He has dropped in and out of college several times between the ages of 18 and 27, and he has held:
eight jobs
Which group showed the greatest gains in their well-being after high school?
college students
How do friends differ from family members?
friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions
If a man talks about his problems to a male friend, he is most likely to expect:
practical solutions
When a woman talks about her problems with a friend, she usually wants:
sympathy or understanding
Friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because:
men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities
Which of the following statements about the qualities young adults seek from a romantic partner is true?
Culture greatly affects the qualities sought by individuals
According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and:
Commitment
Which characteristic is associated with passionate love?
a new relationship
The dominant traits of commitment are:
mutual caregiving and dedication
Passion is fueled in part by:
uncertainty and risk
For which of the following types of couples does the developmental pattern of intimacy, commitment, and passion differ from that of others?
couples in arranged marriages
Which of the following statistics is currently true in the United States?
The divorce rate is half the marriage rate
Which change has occurred over the past several decades in virtually every industrialized nation?
The number of unwed parents has increased dramatically
Heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:
Dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.
In demand/withdraw interactions, women tend to be more ______ and men more ______.
demanding; withdrawing
Which of the following occurrences is a result of intimate terrorism?
battered wife syndrome
The notion that family members tend to be affected by all aspects of each other's lives describes:
linked lives
What is enmeshment?
parents always knowing what their emerging adult children are doing or thinking?
Which of the following statements about hormone replacement therapy is true?
Researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its positive effects were invalid
All smoking diseases are:
dose and duration sensitive
Research studies on alcohol use have shown that:
moderate use of alcohol may increase longevity
Researchers on obesity agree that in middle age:
metabolism slows down by a third
Although it is still very common, the incidence of adult obesity has not increased in the United States since the year ______.
2000
Implementation is quitting a habit according to plan. When is implementation most successful?
when tackling one habit at a time.
What is the term for the phenomenon that happens when a person's resolve to break a habit fades when faced with stress?
attention myopia
Effectively coping with stress may:
strengthen the immune system
Following a series of major stressors, reactions to stress often include:
increased resilience
The most basic statistic regarding health is:
mortality
One biological reason why women tend to live longer, healthier lives than men is that:
the second X chromosome or extra estrogen protects them
One measure of health is morbidity, which:
includes statistics on both acute and chronic illnesses
Which is most costly to society?
disability
The ability to enjoy life is measured by:
mobility and vitality.
The measure of health most important to the quality of life is:
vitality
Two important correlates of vitality are:
personality and national culture
Which of the following is the reciprocal of QALYs?
disability-adjusted life years
A major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:
high socioeconomic status
In the United States, after age 35 the life span increases ______ years for each year of education.
1.7
The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low socioeconomic status:
tend to live as much as 30 years less than the 10 million healthiest Americans.
Most adults reach their peak of intellectual ability between the ages of ______ and ______.
40; 60
Which of the following primary abilities declines the earliest in adulthood?
number ability
Who has the best chance of maintaining intellectual abilities into late adulthood?
Martin, who has a college education, a happy marriage, and a good retirement plan
The challenge of determining the existence of a g is:
the lack of pure measures of intelligence
Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is:
The ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words.
During adulthood, fluid intelligence:
decreases
Which of the following statements about changes in intelligence is true?
Age-related declines are first noted for skills that require speed of response
Analytic intelligence involves:
abstract planning, focused attention, and verbal and logical skills
Practical intelligence would be most needed to:
understand the needs of family members
Which type of intelligence is usually valued in high school and college?
analytic
Schaie found that scores on tests of practical intelligence were steady from age 20 to age:
70
Which of the following experiences can help improve people's ability on psychometric tests?
studying the dictionary
For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:
in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest
When developmentalists use the term "expert," they usually mean a person who:
is significantly better than others at performing a certain task
When the thought required for an action has become routine, and it appears that most aspects of the task are performed instinctively, the performance of the task is:
automatic
Thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought is ______ processing.
automatic
Experts tend to be intuitive, automatic, ______, and ______ in their thinking.
strategic; flexible
According to many developmentalists, the key to successful aging is:
the capacity to accommodate to changes over time.
Which of the following statements about age and expertise is true?
Expertise can overcome some effects of age but not others
At one time, such occupations as "housewife" or "nonworking mom" were known as:
women's work
Compared to adolescents, approximately how many adults consider themselves close to their siblings?
twice as many
Familism may be defined as the:
belief that family members take care of each other
The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:
familism
When in a relationship is domestic violence most likely to appear?
early in the relationship
After a decade or two, most married couples find that:
happiness increases as children become more independent
After the children are grown, most married couples:
have adequate time for their relationship
According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation comes:
generativity versus stagnation
In a typical family, the "kinkeeper" is most likely to be:
a middle-aged mother
The person who is most likely to become a kinkeeper is a:
daughter
What is the chief form that generativity takes?
establishing and guiding the next generation
Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments, because:
some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents
The notion of the sandwich generation:
is not very accurate.
Which of the following statements regarding the middle generation as the sandwich generation is true?
Providing assistance to older and younger generations may be more a function of personality than of necessity.
Which of Maslow's stages emphasizes the importance of accomplishments in adulthood?
success and esteem
The average income has ______ in the United States in the past 50 years.
doubled
Which of the following conditions do older employees tend to display?
less absenteeism
In the United States, what percentage of the labor force is female?
50
Between the ages of 25 and 42, the average worker in the United States has ______ separate employers.
5
Whether or not a worker has a nonstandard, flexible, or telecommuting schedule depends mostly on the worker's:
industry and status
What is one benefit to workers being able to choose their own schedules?
happiness
The changes of primary aging are:
universal
Compared to younger adults, older adults generally:
take longer to fall asleep
The age group least likely to be involved in motor vehicle accidents is people aged:
55-64
What happens to bones with age?
The become more porous
The condition known as "fragile bones" is called:
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis not only results from primary and secondary aging, but also from too:
much smoking
Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that:
most visual and auditoy losses can be compensated for.
Maximum life span is defined as the:
upper limit to which members of a species can live
The average life expectancy for men is ______ years, for women ______ years.
76; 81
Which of the following statements about cellular aging is true?
Aging may be caused by the inevitable loss of the ability of cells to duplicate perfectly
Antioxidants can be found in:
vitamins A, C, and E.
B-cells defend the body against invaders by:
producing antibodies against bacteria and viruses
Immune cells manufactured in the thymus gland are:
T Cells
Which statement about the immune system is correct?
Women tend to have a stronger immune systems than do men
When human cells are grown under laboratory conditions that encourage them to grow and divide, cells:
from human embryos stop dividing after about 50 divisions
The Hayflick limit is a natural limit to the:
number of times cells can divide.
If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:
calorie restriction
A cultural factor that may increase longevity is:
being integrated into the community.
Factors that contribute to a long life include:
lifelong work and a diet rich in fresh vegetables
For people who reach late adulthood in good health, the most important determinant of longevity may be:
their activities and attitudes
According to the textbook, what is one of the changes that happens to the brain during senescence?
Cerebral blood circulates more slowly
Overall brain slowdown is evident in which of the following ways?
slower reaction time
At every age, working quickly:
decreases accuracy
With age, what happens to the brain?
Using both hemispheres simultaneously becomes more likely
Which of the following statements is a possible explanation for greater brain activity in older adults?
Older adults compensate for losses by using more parts of their brains
The divide between what is sensed and what is not is known as the:
sensory threshold
The memory for recalling names tends to ___________ with age, while memory for vocabulary tends to _______________ with age.
decrease; increase
An older adult would probably experience the most difficulty remembering:
the facts surrounding the 1948 presidential election
The part of the brain that shrinks more with age than do other parts of the brain is the:
prefrontal cortex
Which of the following statements is characteristic of the memory of older adults?
Older adults are better at recognition than recall
Which of the following emotions reduces control processes?
fear
For the average individual in late adulthood, traditional tests of intelligence demonstrate that:
cognitive abilities decline
What is an important modifier of cognitive decline in late adulthood?
training in cognitive skills
The term dementia literally means:
out of mind
The most common cause of dementia is:
Alzheimer 's disease
Autopsies show that the brains of Alzheimer victims:
have a proliferation of plaques and tangles
Many researchers believe that Alzheimer disease actually begins ______ year(s) before diagnosis.
10 - 20
The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by:
absentmindedness about recent events
Vascular dementia is caused by:
insufficient supply of blood to the brain.
Parkinson disease is the cause of what percentage of all cases of dementia?
3
A main symptom in Lewy body dementia is loss of:
inhibition
What is the most common reversible cause of dementia symptoms?
depression
Abraham Maslow maintains that older adults are:
more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:
Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic
Which of the following attributes is associated with wisdom?
practical life experience
Elements of wisdom include:
a broad practical approach to life and deep insight
According to Erikson, integrity versus despair is the focus of:
late adulthood
According to Erikson, each new experience throughout life requires:
a reassessment of identity
The three major stratification categories that can limit choice at every stage of life are:
age, gender, and ethnicity
The antithesis of disengagement theory is ______ theory.
activity
Active engagement (volunteering and political activity) in society is related to:
gender and ethnicity
What proportion of adults over the age of 65 do no volunteer work?
3/4
Which state has the highest proportion of people over the age of 65?
Florida
Which of the following statements about older people and religion is true?
older people are less likely to attend weekly religious services than are younger people
What percentage of older adults volunteer in political campaigns?
2
The requirement for membership in AARP is that the person is:
over 50
Who is most likely to be the healthiest and happiest at age 70?
Annette who is living with her husband
With regard to their grown children, most elderly people:
are more likely to give financial support than to receive it
Which of the following factors is listed in the textbook as affecting parent and adult child relationships?
Daughters feel stronger affection
Which of the following approaches do grandparents take in their relationships with their grandchildren?
remote
Grandparents who are emotionally distant but who are honored, respected, and obeyed by grandchildren are considered to have which of the following grandparenting styles?
remote
Companionate grandparents are:
happy to be independent of the demands of child rearing
Most contemporary grandparents in the United States prefer which style?
companionate
The style of grandparenting that generally brings the most satisfaction to grandparents in the United States is the ______ style.
companionate
Research indicates that having a partner and children is:
not essential for happiness in late adulthood
In 2010, what percentage of people over the age of 65 had broadband Internet connections at home?
31
The abbreviation ADL refers to:
activities of daily life
What percentage of elders say they are abused?
5
Elder maltreatment is:
likely to cause isolation, fear, and dependence
Which factor is listed in the textbook as one of the signs of a humane setting for long-term care?
individual choice