Miller and Levine Biology- Structure of DNA

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Rosalind Franklin
(1952) Chemist who photographed DNA with X-Ray photos. She was responsible for much of the research and discoveries that led to the understanding of the structure of DNA but was beaten to publication by Crick and Watson, in part due to the friction between Maurice Wilkins and herself. She died in 1958, leaving her unable to receive the Nobel prize with Watson, Crick, and Wilkins
James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
(1953) Scientists who jointly received the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their 1953 determination to the structure of DNA without Wilkin's colleague, Rosalind Franklin, due to her death 4 years prior
Nitrogen bases
cytosine, thymine, adenine, guanine
Adenine
pairs with Thymine in DNA, Uracil in RNA
Thymine
pairs with Adenine in DNA, not present in RNA
Cytosine
pairs with Guanine in DNA and RNA
Guanine
pairs with Cytosine in DNA and RNA
hydrogen bond
substance that holds pairs of Nitrogen bases together
deoxyribose sugar
connects with phosphate and a nitrogen base to make a nucleotide
phospate
connects with deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base to make a nucleotide
nucleotide
1 nucleotide, 1 phosphate, and 1 deoxyribose sugar; make up a DNA molecule
rung of DNA Model
Nitrogen bases and hydrogen bond
rail of DNA Model
deoxyribose sugar and phosphate
DNA
twisted ladder, Watson-Crick Model
quality and quantity
must remain the same in the reproduction of DNA or offspring may be mutated and will not be identical to the parental generation
ribose
the sugar in RNA, contrary to the sugar in DNA, which is deoxyribose
Single-stranded
RNA is this, while DNA is double-stranded
Uracil
takes the place of thymine in RNA and pairs with Adenine
ACT GAA CGT
match for TGA CTT GCA in DNA
ACU GAA CGU
match for TGA CTT GCA in RNA
1996
the year genetically modified food became part of our food supply
transgenic
another word for Genetically Modified
1990
the year the Human Genome Project began
3 billion
number of nucleotide bases that the Human Genome Project wanted to sequence
human
all the types of genes the human genome project wanted to identify
DNA sequencing
the process at the center of the Human Genome Project
identical
the types of genomes that most people have; one base in 120 does not match between 2 people
SNP
single nucleotide polymorphism; the difference used to identify various diseases and conditions
2003
the year the Human Genome Project completed
binoformatics and genomics
new fields of scientific study launched by the Human Genome Project
making protiens
what 2% of our genome codes for
very few
amount of genes that many chromosomes have large areas with
diseases and disorders
the Human Genome Project identified genes linked to these
3 million
number of places that the Human Genome Project identified where single-base pairs differences occur in humans
selective breeding
a method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation.
hybridization
a breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms (type of selective breeding)
inbreeding
a continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the derived characteristics of a kind of organism (type of selective breeding)
mutation
a variation that occurs when cells make mistakes in copying their own DNA; can be inherited
gene mutations and chromosomal mutations
two categories of mutations
gene mutations
change a single gene
chromosomal mutations
change in number or structure chromosome
natural or artificial
means by which genetic material can be altered
mutagens
chemical or physical agents in the environment that can cause mutations
Chemical mutagens
pesticides, tobacco smoke, pollutants
Physical mutagens
ultraviolet light, x rays
help or harm
what mutations can do to an organism
little to no
the amount of effect most mutations have on an organism
evolve
could not happen without genetic variation through mutations
cancer and sickle cell anemia
examples of diseases caused by harmful mutations
stronger bones
example of helpful mutation
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