Organization of the Body
This is all taken from Quiz 1 and Exam 1 from my anatomy class. Packets: Organization of the Body and Basic Chemistry
Terms in this set (76)
Levels of Body Organization. (largest to smallest)
Organism, System, Organ, Tissue, Cellular, and Chemical
The study of tissues
Nose, pharynx, trachea(wind pipe), lungs. Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Converts energy in nutrients(glucose) into ATP. Requires oxygen(O2) and gives off carbon dioxide.
builds up(synthesis) large molecules from simple ones; requires energy
Fluid within (inside of) cells
"On opposite sides"
Sole of foot
When the mid section is cut in half horizontally.
The Thoracic Cavity
Contains the heart and lungs. Is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm. Is a portion of the ventral body cavity.
Upper left region beneath the ribs. (When looking at a picture, it's the upper right region)
Is the study of structure.
Are composed of more than one kinds of atoms.
T/F: Structure compliments function.
T/F: Most organs contain all four types of tissue.
An organ is composed of 2 or more types of tissues with specialized functions.
A system is a group of 2 or more organs that perform common functions.
An organism is a group of systems.
Skin, hair, nails, glands. External covering, protects deeper tissue from injury.
Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints. Protects and supports organs, blood cells form in bone marrow, frameworks for muscular movement, and stores minerals.
Muscles: Locomotion, works with skeletal system for movement, contraction, and produces heat.
Brain, spinal cord, nerves. Fast-acting control system, responds to internal and external changes, coordination and communication for the entire body.
Ductless glands that secrete hormones into fluid or blood. Regulates processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use. Communication and coordination using hormones.
GI tract( esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, mouth, and pharynx), tongue, teeth, etc. Food intake, processes food into energy.
Blood, heart, and blood vessels. Transport blood with oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes. Heart- pumps blood
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils. A one way system that returns fluid from the tissues to the cardio system. Immune system: responds to disease.
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. Regulates water, maintains salter/water balance, gets rid of urea.
Male: scrotum, testes, prostate, etc. Female: ovaries, uterus, etc. Producing offspring, females produce milk.
standard body position used for referencing descriptions. Standing upright, feet flat and together, facing observer, arms at the sides with palms facing forwards, thumbs facing away from the body.
"Above" - toward the head/ upper body
"Below" - away from the head
"in front of" - toward the front of the body
"Behind" - toward the backside
Toward or at the mid-line of the body
Outer side of the body.
on the same side
on one side
On two sides
"Between" one structure and another
external; on the surface
on the surface, outside.
internal; towards the inside of the body
closer to the point of attachment. i.e) the elbow is proximal to the wrist
Farther away from the point of attachment
a membrane that lines a cavity
A membrane that covers an organ
Cranial Cavity: the brain. Vertebral Cavity: backbone.
Pleural cavities: the lungs. Pericardial cavity: the heart. Diaphragm. Abdominopelvic cavity.
the lungs. Parietal Pleura: lines walls of thoracic cavity. Visceral Pleura: covers the outer surface of the lungs. Pleural Cavity: space between the lungs with pleural fluid.
the heart. Parietal Pericardium: lines the wall of the pericardial cavity. Visceral Pericardium: covers the surface of the heart(epicardium). Pericardial Cavity: space between 2 layers of percardium with pericardial fluid.
Abdominopelvic cavity. Parietal: lines the walls of it. Visceral: covers the surface (serosa).
Study of function
The structural or functional variations between cells.
Interstitial fluid. fluid between cells.
fluid outside of cells.
fluid within blood vessels
fluid in lymph vessels
The outer tube is the body wall, the inner tube is the digestive tract, food passing through the digestive tract is considered to be outside the body.
increase in cell number, size, and amount of intercellular material
Term referring to the front of the elbow.
a plane that divides the body into right and left portions.
the central region of the 9 abdominal regions.
A basic physiological principle, maintainence of a dynamic state in the internal environment, coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems.
Contains a receptor, a control center, and an effector.
An example of positive feedback
Muscle contraction in the uterus during labor.
The smallest unit of an element that shows all its characteristics. Nucleus contains protons and neutrons. 8 valence shells. Electrons = # of protons.
Strongest type of chemical bond.
Bonds which form between polar molecules or charged portions of a single large molecule.
Polar Covalent Bonds
Consist of pairs of electrons shared unequally between atoms, result in charged portions of a molecule, and are found in water molecules.
Dissociates in water to form an anion plus a hydrogen ion and is one kind of electrolyte.
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