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Physical Science- Chemistry

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A compound is not...
substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units
The smallest unit of an element that can exist alone..
an atom
The smallest part of a compound that can exist and still retain it's properties
molecule
What determines the chemincal properties of an atom?
Valence electrons
"Atoms attempt to acquire an outer orbital with eight electrons" is a statement of the
Octet Rule
Atoms that achieve an octet by sharing electrons form
covalent bonds
The electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called a (an)
Ionic Bond
The energy released during the formation of an ionic bond is
Heat of formation
What kind of bond has unequal sharing of bonding electrons?
Polar covalent
Pure substances that cannot be broken down into anything simpler are
elements
An ion can be described as an element or compound that
gains or loses electrons
You know that a chemical reaction is taking place if
chemical bonds are formed and broken
The electrons that participate in chemical bonding are the
valence electrons
Which type of chemical bond is formed by a transfer of electrons?
ionic
Which type of chemical bond is formed between two atoms by the sharing of electrons?
Covalent
What type of compounds are salts, such as sodium chloride?
ionic compounds
Which combination of elements forms crystalline solids that will dissolve in water, producing a solution of ions that can conduct an electric current?
Metal and Nonmetal
In a single covalent bond between two atoms, a
pair of electrons, one from each atom is shared
A covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of bonding electrons is a
Polar covalent bond
An inorganic compound made of only two different elements has a systematic name that always ends with the suffix
-ide
Dihydrogen monoxide is the systematic name for a compound that has the common name of
water
Which of the following is not an example of a chemical reaction?
Blending of a vanilla milkshake
Which of the following substances is not a compound?
Neon
Propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reactants in this reaction are propane and
Oxygen
Which is not true of an ionic bond? It involves
Sharing of electrons
A non-metal atom combines with a second non-metal atom. The first non-metal atom
shares electrons with the second non-metal atom.
The combination of non-metals with non-metals forms
Covalent compounds
The relative arrangement of the atoms in a molecule is a (an)
structural formula
What is the meaning of the subscripts in a chemical formula?
number of atoms of an element in a compund
"Atoms are neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction" is statement of the
Law of conservation of mass
A solid that comes out of solution as result of an ion exchange reaction is called a
precipitate
A balanced chemical equation provides quantitative information about all the following except
Time of reaction
The number of atoms in exactly 12.0 grams of Carbon-12 is called
Avogadro's number
Any substance that contains Avogadro's number of particles is called a
mole
A material that speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed by the reaction is called a
Catalyst
A balanced chemical equation has
the same number of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation
The law of conservation of mass means that
atoms are not lost or destroyed in a chemical reaction
A chemical equation is balanced by changing
coefficients
In a replacement (single displacement) reaction, elements that have the most ability to hold onto their electrons are
The least chemically active
A balanced chemical equation provides all of the following information except
Exchange rate of reactants and products
An ion exchange (double displacement) reaction can be identified by all of the following except
The required addition of heat
A major use for water in the average home is for
toilets
Freshwater is obtained from all the following except
Oceans
A molecule with a positive end and a negative end is called a
polar molecule
The material present in a solution in the largest amount is the
solvent
The relative amount of solute and solvent in a solution is defined as the
concentration
A solution with a state of equilibrium between the dissolving solute and solute coming out of solution is
Saturated
The solubility of most ionic salts in water
Increases with temperature
Ionic substances that dissolve in water and conduct an electric current are called
electrolytes
All of the following are electrolytes except
Sugars
What is an acid when it dissolved in water?
proton donor
The pH scale is based on the concentration of what in solution?
hydronium ions
The products produced in a neutralization reaction are
salt and water
Which of the following is not a solution?
sand
Atmospheric air is a homogeneous mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen gas. The nitrogen is therefore the
Solvent
A homogeneous mixture is made up of 95% alcohol and 5% water. In this case, water is the
Solute
The solution concentration terms of parts per million (ppm), percent by volume, and percent by weight are concerned with the amount of
Solute in the solution
A concentration of 500 ppm is reported in a new article. This is the same concentration as
0.05 %
According to the label, a bottle of vodka has a 40% by volume concentration. This means the vodka contains 40 mL of pure alcohol
Mixed with water to make 100 mL of vodka
A salt solution has solid salt on the bottom of the container and salt is dissolving at the same rate that is it coming out of solution. You know the solution is
A saturated solution
As the temperature of water decreases, the solubility of CO2 in water
Increases
At what temperature does water have the greatest density?
4 degrees celsius
A certain solid salt is insoluble in water, so the strongest force must be the
Ion-ion force
Which of the following will conduct an electric current?
A water solution of an ionic compound
A water solution of an ionic compound
Pure water
Salt solutions freeze at a lower temperature than pure water because
Ions get in the way of water molecules trying to form ice
Solutions of acids, bases, and salts have what in common? All have
Ions
When a solution of an acid and base are mixed together,
All of the above
A substance that ionizes completely into hydronium ions is known as a
Strong acid
A scale of values that expresses the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is known as
The pH scale
Substance A has a pH of 2 and a substance B has a pH of 3. This means
Substance A is 10 times more acidic than substance B
Water is a (an)
Polar covalent compound
Salt is spread on icy roads because it
lowers the freezing point of water
A solution has a pH of 9. This means that the solution is
Basic
An orgainic compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen is called a (an)
Hydrocarbon
Carbon-to-carbon bonds are
covalent
Compounds with the same molecular formulas but with different structures are called
Isomers
Hydrocarbons with double bonds are the
alkene
A hydrocarbon with a carbon-to-carbon triple bond is an
Alkynes
Hydrocarbons that have one to four carbon atoms are
gases
The process where large hydrocarbons are converted into smaller ones is called
cracking
The atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule that is the site of a chemical reaction is called the
functional group
The hydroxyl, -OH, functional group is found in
alcohols
An organic compound is a compound that
contains carbon, whether it was formed by a living thing or not
There are millions of organic compounds but only thousands of inorganic compounds because
carbon atoms can combine with up to four other atoms including other carbon atoms
Isomers have
different chemical and physical properties
Petroleum is believed to have formed mostly from the anaerobic decomposition of buried
plankton and algae
The R in ROH represents
a hydrocarbon group with a name ending in -yl
The OH in ROH represents
A functional group
What is the proof of a "wine cooler" that is 5 percent alcohol by volume?
10 proof
A protein is a polymer formed from the linking of many
amino acid molecules
Fats from animals and oils from plants have the general structure of a (an)
Ester
Liquid oils from plants can be converted to solids by adding what to the molecule?
hydrogen
Many synthetic polymers become a problem in the environment because they
do not readily decompose and tend to accumulate
An organic molecule that does not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms is called
unsaturated
Aromatic hydrocarbons are often used as
solvents
The rate of combustion of gasoline is quantified by
octane rating
The organic acid that is found in sour milk, pickles, and in your muscles as a product of carbohydrate metabolism is
lactic acid
What are the organic compounds that are used in perfumes and for artificial flavors?
esters
Sugars, starches, and cellulose belong to which class of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates