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Anything from 1877-1914 -- put it here
Terms in this set (67)
last reigning queen of Hawaii;insisted on native hawaiian control of islands; 1893 minority group of whites revolted and dethroned her; treaty of annexation stopped by pres cleveland, but she could not be reinstated as queen
1894 -- strike over wages and rents; ties up RR traffic across the nation; gov't sides with Pullman, brings in troops to shut down strike
William Jennings Bryan
A Populist in the 1890s, Bryan's claim to fame was through his "Cross of Gold" speech, in which he denounced the gold standard in favor of silver.
The McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 put tariffs at their highest peacetime level ever with an average of 48.4%. This put heavy strains on farmers who were forced to buy high-priced American goods, but sold their own goods for less to the world market.
One of the original automobile inventors in the 1890s, he created the Model T, a cheap and reliable first car for the country.
Rebellion after the Spanish-American War led by Aguinaldo; unhappy with American occupation; increased worries about American empire
Progressivism was a product of society no longer accepting life under large-scale corporations in the 1890s-1900s. Progressivism included movements against social injustice, the betterment of the working class, and the control of corporations.
The U.S. Senate shall consist of two Senators from each state, elected by popular vote.
These people were journalists who slammed political corruption and aimed to cleanse politics and wrote against trusts, unsafe working conditions, etc.
Civil Service Commission
effect of Garfields death; politicians reform corrupt polls; republican party establish Pendleton Act of 1833 (magna carta of civil service reform) made campaign contributions from fed employees illegal and established Civil Service Commission to make competitive examinations for prospective fed jobs
hungarian immigrant to St. Louis; very succesful journalist; bought "New York World" amoung other publications; created Yellow Kid and Yellow journalism
1878; demonetizing silver in 1873 to make gold standard led to panic of 1873 which led to a depression; congressman Richard Bland and Senator William Allison--liberal coinage of silver to inflate economy; pres Hayes fought it; ended up having little impact
(1878-1968)-Pulitzer-prize winning writer famous for advocating socialistic ideas and writing The Jungle.
Open Door Policy
(1899)-John Hay stated that all powers must respect certain rights and the ideal of fair competition in dealing with China
Meat Inspection Act
(1906)-Meat shipped over state lines is subject to inspection. Inspired by The Jungle
(1879-1966)-Feminist who formed the American Birth Control League, promoting eugenics and the use of contraceptives
United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
1895- When the American Sugar Refining Company gained control of E.C. Knight sugar company, and accordingly, 98% of the sugar market in America, President Cleveland sued the Knight Company and its sudden monopoly. But Chief Justice Melville Weston Fuller ruled, against the government, that the manufacturing of a product was "local" trade and, thus, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act didn't apply to Knight Company's newly acquired monopoly on the production of sugar.
(1894)-Inspired by the economic panic of 1893, Jacob Coxey leads an "army' of protesters to Washington, demanding that the government passes a public works program to decrease unemployment and promote inflation.
Interstate Commerce Act
Passed by Congress in 1887 (against Prez Cleveland's aversion to effective regulation), this banned rebates and pools and forced railroads to openly publish their rates. It met the specifications of the 1886 Wabash case, which ruled that only the federal government, not individual states, could regulate interstate commerce.
1901- The beginning of the US Supreme Court decision that although the newly acquired Puerto Rico and Philippines were subject to American rule, they did not benefit from all American rights (the flag outran the Constitution).
Eugene V. Debs
Started out as leader of the American Railway Union. He ran for president as a socialist in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920. He was convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 and was sentenced to 10 years in prison (but was pardoned by Harding in 1921).
originated in Britain, expressing a pugnacious attitude towards Russia in the 1870s; example--nationalistic belligerence was intensified by the sinking of the battleship USS Maine in Havana harbour that led to the Spanish-American War of 1898.
1892; vicious battle between striking populists--angry over pay cuts and Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant
Chinease Exclusion Act
Did not allow Chinese immigrants in to America during the years leading to WWI
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877-1881) Often referred to as one of the "forgettable presidents" who were bewhiskered and bland in person, he left mostly blanks or blots on the nation's political record on issues like the tariff, the money question, and right of labor. He was the 19th president of the U.S.
William Randolph Hearst
(1887) Working in the techniques of sensationalism with Joseph Pulitzer, he ultimately built up a powerful chain of newspapers that persuaded the public, beginning with the San Francisco Examiner.
Yellow Journalism - (1887) Created by Journalistic tycoons Joseph Pulitzer, leader of the sensationalist movement, and William Randolph Hearst. Pulitzer's use of the colored comic supplements, featuring the "yellow kid," gave the name yellow journalism to his sheets.
20th president; term began and ended in 1881. Vice President Charles Arthur becomes president (1881).
Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner created a philosophy based on Darwin's evolutionary theory. Created the "Survival of the fittest" saying and applied it to wealth (1880s).
Pure food and drug act
Designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of of foods and pharmaceuticals. Passed it 1906 by Theodore Roosevelt.
Also known as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, it was founded in part by W.E.B. Dubois. It worked for equality for African Americans both in terms of rights as well as paying jobs.
Completed in 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge is a harplike suspension bridge.
U.S. Steel Corporation
a company that was at the center of the eventual Taft-Roosevelt rivalry. A company that President Roosevelt had previously allowed to absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, and that President Taft tried to trust-bust
(1898) Washington sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to evacuate Americans if a dangerous flare-up should occur. On February 15, 1898 the Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor. There were multiple speculations as to the cause of the explosion but it was concluded to be accidental.
a very important 113 day event in the imperialistic period of America's history. Established Teller and Platt Amendments, annexed Hawaii [possible war support], acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, freed Cuba, reaffirmed USA as world power, and solidified American unity in post-civil war.
1890s -- used in factories and helped to spur industrialization
An American military division that took part in the invasion of Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Largely made up of cowboys, and commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood.
John D. Rockefeller
The head of Standard Oil who implemented the trust system through horizontal integration (allying with competitors to monopolize a market). He was a proponent of the gospel of wealth, but turned to philanthropy later in his life.
Woodrow Wilson's democratic platform for the election of 1912. Called for antitrust legislation, banking reform, and tariff reductions.
Beard Thesis (of the Constitution)
(1913) - Charles Beard argued in An Economic Interpretation of the United States that the founding fathers had successfully supported their "economic supremacy" through the Constitution without regard for the lower class - also argues the Constitution was passed easily because the lower class did not meet voting requirements.
(1913) -gives Congress power to collect income tax.
Haymarket Square riot
In 1886 and dynamite bomb killed/injured several people at a Haymarket. Conspiracies of this event destroyed the "Knights".
(1910) A doctrine supported by Theodore Roosevelt that called for an increase of government power to remedy social and economic abuses. Further divided the Republican Party into Taft and Roosevelt camps.
1901-1909: A progressive president who did some trust busting, and enacted the triple C's (Control of the Corporations, Consumer Protection, Conservation of United States' natural resources)
Frederick Jackson Turner
U.S. historian who taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era.
Sherman Antitrust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
The Urban League
An interracial organization committed to integration, it relied on tools of negotiation, persuasion, education, and investigation to accomplish its economic and social goals.
National Municipal League
Founded in 1894 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; where politicians, policy-makes, journalists, and educators (such as Teddy Roosevelt) met to converse about US cities; still existing under the National Civic League
formed in 1878, and was rooted in the Republican hard-money policy. Attracted farmers and the like, actually successfully elected representatives, and would, along with Populism, give birth to Progressivism.
Booker T. Washington
an ex-slave who was key to starting AA education, established a school to teach AAs teaching and industrial skills. Believed in helping AAs help themselves before actual civil rights, contrasted against Du Bois and immediate rights.
: started during the early 20th century, realist artistic movement that depicted scenes of daily life in urban areas, such as the ghettos of New York. Figures such as Jacob Riis brought attention to the conditions of living.
The Wright Brothers
developed the first airplane at Kitty Hawk, and flew on December 17, 1903
Plessy v. Ferguson
Court decision supporting de jure segregation. He was arrested for sitting in a whites only car where integration was not allowed.
Bull moose party
(1912) Lead by Theodore Roosevelt this was a third party other than the Democrats and the Republicans.
William Howard Taft
a mild progressive who urged people to invest abroad. Known as the trust buster. Created the Dollar diplomacy policy. Split the republican party.
Tin Pan Alley
(1885) it is the name that was given to the collection of NYC centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the music industry in the late 19th century and early 20th century
1880's local political action of people concerned about crop failures, falling prices, and poor marketing and credit facilaties
slightly reduced the United States tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff and imposed a 2% income tax. It is named for William L. Wilson
was the 25 president and last civil war veteran elected for office. Republican who focused on tariffs
American Protective association
American Protective association -founded in 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers. Its goals included restricting Catholic immigration, making ability to speak English a prerequisite to American citizenship, removing Catholic teachers from public schools and banning Catholics from public offices
1990s: Superpatriotic group, known for their martial arts. Attacked and Killed many foreigners and its community.
1890~1907: Organized territory of U.S when it became the 46th state. Eastern area consisted last ramnant of Indian territory.
Cross of Gold speech-
most famous speech in American political history, made by William Bryan. Issue was whether to endorse the free coinage of silver at a ratio of silver to gold of 16 to 1. (This inflationary measure would have increased the amount of money in circulation and aided cash-poor and debt-burdened farmers.)
Grandson of 9th president William H. Harrison, he was nominated as the republican candidate in the 1888 election. though he lost he became the 23rd president in the 1889 elections bringing six states into the union
member of a political party claims to represent the common people; William Jennings Bryan
Free Silver Movement
People wanted mints (places where money is coined) to dispense
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What caused the Great Migration, and what effect did it have on the political power of African Americans?
What was Tin Pan Alley, and from what did it derive its style and sound?
a. How did business leaders and social critics view government's role in business differently? b. Evaluate the business and charitable contributions of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. c. In what ways did new business and marketing practices change American life?
In Chapter 1, we saw that there were many parallels between Native American, European, and African societies on the eve of contact. Yet Europeans ended up dominating both Native American and African populations in colonial American settings. Based on what you learned in Chapter 2, what factors help to explain that dominance?