Which of the following is NOT an ethics value for public relations professionals?
Audience members do not simply parrot or accept the claims made in advertisements. Which of the following groups would scrutinize advertising claims prior to purchasing a product?
literate media consumers
This is the public relations activity which focuses on communicating the interests, concerns, and issues pertinent to particular individuals and organizations to local, state, and national legislatures.
This is a type of communication that concentrates on persuading clients to support a very specific issue such as a cause or a social movement.
This type of communication attempts to persuade individuals to take some form of action (buy, believe, consume) toward a product, idea, or service. According to Chapter 8, it is what makes the wealth of content seen in today's media possible.
Who was one of the first users of the press agentry form of public relations?
P. T. Barnum
Supported by advertising, this new activity greatly modernized American manufacturing. Moreover, it helped to create a lasting marriage between advertising and media in the US.
What is considered the first public relations "staged event" in the United States?
Boston Tea Party
In the United States, the roots of modern public relations can be traced back to the time of the American Revolution.
This is the foundational marketing and advertising means of the Digital Age. It creates more carefully directed messages that are targeted to smaller, more clearly defined audience segments.
Which of the following is one of the ways your instructor said advertising and public relations are different?
Advertising is considered paid media, and public relations is considered free media.
The Truth antismoking campaign, for instance, is developed especially for young audiences and emphasizes the health risks of tobacco use. It is a contemporary example of what form of promotion?
public service announcement
Universal appeals are strongly tied to Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
As much as advertisers rely on consumers' desires or their sense of social responsibility to facilitate cultural change or to sell a product, they also rely on key universal appeals.
In the early years of the 18th century, __________were the dominant mass media in the United States. During this time, colonial publishers supported their enterprises through revenues from advertising-paid announcements posted by local merchants.
PR firms often employ 360-degree campaigns, which present a client's message across a wide range of media platforms, including the Internet, television and radio, print, and mobile devices.
Which of the following would be considered among the "publics" in public relations? Choose the best answer
All of the Above
In the United States, as they do in much of the world, _______________make(s) possible the variety of mass media content that we all enjoy.
This is the name of the highly effective way of creating audience affinity with a product or message without direct commercial advertising. It comprises the mixing of identifiable products and brands into entertainment programming.
As we learn in Chapter 8, the story of Johnson and Johnson in the 1980s is one example of how one company grossly mishandled a crisis communication scenario.
To better identify their markets and to test the impact they have on their targeted audiences, advertisers often run sophisticated studies that look at individuals' lifestyles, values, attitudes and personalities. Studies of this nature are known as
This former newspaper reporter took on the job of cleaning up the public image of large American companies in the early 1900s and simultaneously established public relations as a separate profession. Many consider him to be the father of modern PR.
Ivy Ledbetter Lee
In 1964, Lyndon Johnson's campaign created this highly controversial and highly effective political ad.
The Industrial Revolution gave birth to _____________, a system that creates and encourages the purchase of goods and services in increasing amounts.
Regardless of how advertisements are presented in the media, most try to accomplish the same thing: to persuade us to accept a product's message or brand and to create a strong emotional relationship with this product. This is known as
In the 20th century this media ownership model, in which a single entity owns the majority of the media industries in its market, emerged as the dominant model of mass media in the US.
In 1941, this young director, hit a roadblock when William Randolph Hearst attempted to buy and later destroy all copies of his recently produced film before its release.
One company can maximize its profits when it operates and controls all of the means of production, distribution, and exhibition for a large segment of the mass media (such as news publishing or the movie industry). The name given to this practice is
While media companies produce content useful for our entertainment or information, they must also fulfill their ____________________ responsibility to the shareholders who own the corporations themselves.
This is the name of the funds collected by media companies as a result of advertising-related sales such as product placements. Other forms of these come from licensing and syndication of media products, or portions of media products reused by other content distribution companies.
Indirect media revenues
In the US, advertising sales represent only a small portion of all media revenue.
So far, more than one half of all classified advertising has migrated to the Web.
Catherine Crier, a former Texas state judge who wrote the book Contempt: How the Right is Wronging American Justice, has argued that
healthy debate from people all across the political spectrum is necessary if the media wish to avoid bias.
Studies by nonpartisan groups such as the Gallup polling organization and the Pew Research Center consistently show that
when people are polled about specific "hot" topics, most criticize media outlets whose coverage disagrees with their own.
Surveys taken at journalism schools in the 1980s and 1990s
found that, among new journalists, liberals outnumbered conservatives by a ratio of 8 to 1.
When producing a news broadcast, producers have to make hard choices about which stories are included and which are excluded, and about which included stories are covered first and given the most air time. These editorial judgments result in
"Bias by extraordinary experiences" refers to
media reporters' and commentators' tendency to be moved by stories of human tragedy and encourage their viewers to take action.
Studies have shown that
from an advertising-revenue standpoint, it makes good business sense for Fox News Channel to represent a conservative position in its programming
Because the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR) are funded partially by federal tax dollars,
the government has the potential to influence these outlets' program content.
This TV show serves as an example of network programming that can effectively incorporate liberally biased political messages within the context of a weekly dramatic series and still be entertaining.
The West Wing
can be found in both blogs and on the editorial pages of virtually all major American newspapers.
Print media such as newspapers
make it easy for readers to distinguish separate news reporting from editorial opinion.
Media outlets tend to attract and hire people who share their political leanings and worldview.
Political bloggers usually try to hide their biases.
Our text discusses President Woodrow Wilson's strategy to rally American support behind the country's entry into World War I and President George W. Bush's strategy to rally American support to strike Iraq, concluding that
media are much more likely now than in Wilson's day to do their own fact-checking and to question a president's assertions.
According to our text, many of the opinion programs airing on cable TV news networks are intentionally biased for business reasons; that is, these shows are purposely constructed in order to attract a particular audience segment.
ox News caters to a conservative audience while CNN and MSNBC gear their programming toward a liberal audience.
The filmmaker Michael Moore, who has produced documentaries such as Fahrenheit 9/11 andBowling for Columbine,
uses his movies to clearly advocate liberal positions on hot-button social and political issues.
The __________________ was established by Congress through the Communications Act of 1934. It empowered the Federal government to regulate the licensing and use of the entire broadcast spectrum.
Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
The period between the late 19th and early 20th centuries was known as the era of the _________________. During this period, the production and distribution of specific media industries was dominated by a single group.
One of the factors leading TV news networks in recent years to increase the amount of commentary and editorializing they include in their coverage is
the 24/7 news cycle, which requires constant infusions of new content to fill endless airtime.
Many states have enacted what are known as_________________. These laws clarify and solidify the protection accorded to reporters from governmental pressure to reveal their sources.
The concepts of freedom of the press and freedom of expression evolved significant throughout the 20th century. In 1940, Congress passed the _____________ This law attempted to control the "danger and menace" of the American Communist Party, and made it a federal crime to "advocate the violent overthrow of the government, or to conspire to advocate the violent overthrow of the government, or to be a member of any organization advocating the violent overthrow of the government."
Copyright laws in the United States only protect the written and published content of mass media. Performance art, for example, is exempt from copyright protection.
In general terms, _______________is any behavior considered lewd, offensive or indecent.
This is the name of the US press as superimposed upon the formal tripartite structure of our government. Free from the authority of and reporting on the doings of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches it is known as _______________________.
The Fourth Estate
The first five words of the First Amendment to the US Constitution are
"Congress shall make no laws..."
A key defense against a libel lawsuit is the _____________ of the published information.
According to Chapter 11, how many requests are filed each year under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)?
The Sedition Act, The Espionage Act, and the Smith Act represented early attempts at government ________________. By its very nature, this activity suppresses free speech and limits the ability of the media to report on government actions.
Our textbook concludes that it is the responsibility of each social media user to behave in an ethical manner.
In general terms, _________________is any form of media that depicts sexual behavior for the purposes of arousing an audience.
In 1966, Congress established an important information-gathering tool for journalists with this statue. In principle, it opens government records that were previously closed to public scrutiny
freedom of information
Between May and September 1787, delegates of the ______________________ congregated in Philadelphia to compose a document that would form the core of a new democratic nation.
A code of ethics is a clear statement of guidelines developed to help individuals make decisions.
Choose the best answer. Sissela Bok suggests how journalists should make ethical decisions:
all of the above
John Stuart Mill's ethical system states that the right course of action is the one that leads to the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people within certain reason. This view forms part of a tradition of ethics called
In order to file a request under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) one must be a professional journalist. Answer
According to Chapter 11, defamation is any form of implied or explicit communication that damages a person's, organization's or product's reputation or standing in the community. The name for written, or published, defamation is ___________.
This term is assigned to the category of copyright law coverin g certain cases of limited lawful use without license or release. It includes limited reproduction by means of photocopies, audio/video copies, and digital copies (CDs, tapes, discs); and is directed toward the support of education and research.
According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the single fastest-growing and most pervasive criminal activity in the United States and Europe is
This is the concept designed to protect the intellectual property and the rights of individual creators and owners from unauthorized and uncompensated appropriation of their work. In other words, copyright law protects the creators of intellectual properties by controlling the unauthorized "copying" and distribution of their works.
In ___________________________ the U.S. Supreme Court set the legal bar for determining defamation cases against media organizations - which remains unchanged today. Writing for the Court, Justice William Brennan stated that to be held liable for defamation, a media organization or individual reporter must have acted in actual malice and to have published this with "reckless disregard for the truth."
New York Times v. Sullivan
Benjamin Franklin is well known for his inventions. His older brother, James, however, is also well known for inventing which early American newspaper?
The New England Courant
In New York Times v. Sullivan, what key phrase emerged as a screen for whether or not a publisher could be found liable for libel?
The activity of a government to stop someone from publishing or airing a story before it has any chance of distribution in the mass media is known as
The new technologies encompassed by society — email, blogs, social networking sites and tweets — have had a huge impact on what we call journalism. Which of the following statements is most true?
The practice of journalism has become an extraordinarily public endeavor.
This is the understanding of how all forms of visual media (drawing, painting, graphs, photographs, films, advertisements and television programs) communicate meaning in a mass media world.
Photography offers us _____ slices of reality, rather than unbiased representations of reality.
Short-tail journalism is a term borrowed from the field of economics. Short-tail retailers focus on large-volume sales of small quantities of specialty items. Which of the following is not a typical short-tail journalism operation?
MSNBC, the website
Even when people receive information through senses other than sight, their minds automatically convert the information into mental images.
The author of this text has reinvented the term "new journalism." The term was originally used in the 1960s and 1970s to describe a literary style of news writing typically found in magazines. Which of the following journalists is given credit for coining the term "new journalism"?
Because of the new technologies encompassed by society, today's journalists have isolated themselves from the public and only disseminate materials crafted by professionally trained writers.
This blog was founded in 2005 by a "liberal" columnist. It is now among the five largest news and commentary websites in the world, attracting nearly 9 million unique visitors monthly in 2009.
The Huffington Post
Digital images of "outer space" that have made it into mainstream mass media because of NASA, were mostly shot by
The Hubble telescope
__________, who has "become one of the most famous, albeit controversial conservative online commentators in America, never went to journalism school and spent time early on in his career as a telemarketer.
CNN practices both short-tail and long-tail journalism. CNN was founded by
This Danish-born (1849) newspaper reporter was one of the first to use photographs to document and expose inner-city poverty in immigrant neighborhoods. A
Downtime, where no news or information is being disseminated, in the broadcast industry is known familiarly as
Websites like Google News and InForm make their money by distributing materials they've sorted from other websites. These sites are controversial because of which the following types of legal rulings.
The widespread use of the Internet by Americans offer a great opportunity to practice journalism by people who have little or no formal journalistic education or training. This text's author labels these individuals as:
Today's journalists need to be multimedia journalists. In 2008 CNN announced it would start hiring employees who could enhance the changing industry. They advertised for employees they called
During this war, the U.S. government successfully limited access by reporters and photographers to the frontlines and heavily restricted war reporting, particularly photojournalism
World War I
A journalistic business that does not produce its own stories or perform its own journalism, but instead only compiles and presents news from other sites is called
news aggregator sites
A University of Leeds professor defines this as "the dynamic process in which visual meaning is created and communicated throughout the visual world."
Journalists coming out of journalism schools need to be multimedia journalists who can do basic work in cross-media platforms by themselves in the field. This text's author calls this new breed of journalists Answer
This famous photojournalist is considered by many to be one of the greatest nature photographers of the modern age.
The Nike swoosh, a pink ribbon and a cross are examples of
During the Vietnam War, many historians believe that relentless media photographic coverage of the human toll helped to fuel the widespread anti-war protests that ultimately ended it.
A hyperlocal n ews site is a journalistic business that doesn't produce its own stories or perform its own journalism
One reaso n the move from film to digital photography has had a major impact on visual journalism is because
darkrooms are no longer needed to produce images
In media today, the trend is to collapse the older, _________________ roles of nondigital media under the management of fewer editors, giving them greater responsibility over broader, more diverse subject areas.
In 1975, David Goldste in purchased this publication a Los Angeles based gay magazine, which over the next 10 years he built into the largest circulating gay publication in the world.
___________________was the first full-time television network newswoman in history. Twenty years into her career, however, NBC company forced her out of her job because of her age and appearance.
The first official Latino radio station in the United States was _______ which broadcast in San Antonio, Texas
Writers in the 21st century are expected to produce their stories with far less collaborative support than in years past.
This man was one of the pioneers of Latino radio. He started broadcasting from KELW in California in 1927 with his show Los Madrugadores, which combined live musical performances with public-interest programming and promotions of community events.
Pedro J. González
Travelling throughout the United States, these railway porters secretly distributed the black newspaper the Defender to the black community. In effect, they contributed to the diversification of American culture.
Americans began to react negatively to the growing Chinese population in the country and labelled Chinese immigration as the __________________. This racist phrase was commonly printed in the newspapers of William Randolph Hearst.
This newspaper was one of the largest and most influential national black-published newspapers in history. It led the way for many other black publishers during the Jim Crow and civil rights eras.
A pivotal moment in the history of the Latino media came in 1986, when Mexican media giant Televisa and the American greeting card company Hallmark formed a partnership to create a new television network. Today, it is the largest Spanish-language television network in the world.
This was an early staple of the Latino immigrant press. A short, weekly column it provided readers with satirical commentary on current events, issues and trends, often through fictional characters and stories. By masking its stark criticisms in comedic characters, it highlighted the surrendering of cultural values and norms that Latinos faced every day
Submitting just a résumé detailing one's skills, past experiences and education is no longer enough. Mass media companies now look more closely at individual digital or online collections of completed projects that demonstrate a specific skills set or knowledge base. These are called
One of the many horrendous dynamics of slavery is this. It is the practice of reducing peoples and cultures to mere objects.
In 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to investigate the increase in race-related violence in the United States. The Commission found that a lack of minority representation in the mainstream media significantly contributed to inaccurate coverage of race relations and race related violence.
was the first black woman to edit a newspaper.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Few fans of the HBO series Sex and the City realize that the controversial best-selling bookSex and the Single Girl, published in 1962, inspired the cable show
Helen Gurley Brown
Shifts in industry business models have made working as a salaried employee for a single company less attractive. More and more people working in the various mass media industries are finding that they have far more opportunities for them as _______________ or contracted workers. This trend is changing the concept and culture of the mass media professional.
Traditionally, writers (reporters, columnists, feature writers) were solely responsible for the _______________ content of any article or story they wrote for the publications that employed them—and only for them.
Today most professional photographers use high-end digital cameras and software such as Adobe Photoshop to process their images. They also use a number of integrated software programs to archive, select and lay out images—for example, Adobe's fully integrated _________________.