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KIN chapter 9
Terms in this set (49)
Preparation and performance of motor skills are influenced by what?
Our limited capacity to select and attend to information
How is attention used when studying for an exam?
Attention is directed on material studied
How does a coach use attention?
Tells them where to focus attention on
What is attention?
The engagement in perceptual, cognitive and motor activities before, during, and after performing motor skills
Can we engage in attention activities consciously or non-consciously?
Being able to verbally describe the activity is what kind of attention?
Having difficulty or not being able to verbally describe the activity, is what kind of attention?
What is implicit knowledge and what's an example?
Can't verbally describe activity but can show it, tying shoes is an example
What is the bottle-neck theory?
Much info comes into the system and the unneeded stimuli is filtered out
What is limited attention capacity?
A key factor that influences the amount of activities people can perform simultaneously
The central resource theory is based on what concept?
Limited attention capacity
What is the central resource theory?
One "supply store" (central resource) from which all attention activities must be obtained
Attention capacity is always the same, is the definition of what?
Attention capacity varies from situation to situation, is the definition of what?
What is the outer circle in the central resource theory?
Fixed attention, max attention capacity
If attention demands exceed, what happens?
Performance will decrease
Kahneman's theory is an example of what kind of theory?
Flexible central resource theory
In Kahneman's theory, what factor influences the amount of attention capacity?
What happens to attention capacity as arousal increases?
Increases up to a certain level, followed by a drop off
What factors influence allocation of attention in Kahneman's theory?
Task demands, enduring dispositions, momentary intentions
What does the task demand factor in Kahneman's theory mean?
Demands change with learning a skill, experts need less attention than novices
When someone slams a door in a quiet room and everyone looks up, what factor was provoked according to Kahneman's theory?
Novel enduring disposition
When someone mentions something of importance, even though you aren't listening, and it grasps your attention, what factor was provoked according to Kahneman's theory?
Meaningful enduring disposition
What are momentary intentions according to Kahneman's theory?
Intentional allocation such as listening to a coach's advice
What happens to available capacity in low arousal levels, according to Kahneman's theory?
Available capacity increases
What happens to available capacity in high arousal levels, according to Kahneman's theory?
Available capacity decreases
When can a limited attention capacity be and advantage for performing a skill?
When shooting a free throw, by filtering out crowd noise
What does the multiple resource theory state?
Attention should not be conceptualized as a single resource but that several attention mechanisms exist, each with limited resources and each specific to a component skill
Wicken's theory is based on what theory?
Multiple resource theory
What does Wicken's theory state?
There are 3 sources of information processing capacity
What's an example of input and output modalities according to Wicken's
Vision, hearing, limbs, and speech
What's an example of stages of information processing according to Wicken's?
Perception, memory encoding, response output
What's an example of codes of information processing according to Wicken's?
Spatial codes, verbal codes
What happens when two tasks compete from the same resource/pool?
Performance will decrease
What happens when two tasks compete from a different pool/resource?
Performance will be equal for both tasks
What is dual task procedure?
When a person performs two task simultaneously
What's an example of a primary and secondary task in dual task procedure?
Walking on a pathway while talking with someone
In dual task procedure what has to be assessed so primary task attention demands are determined?
Secondary task performance
While performing a dual task procedure, the person is instructed to maintain normal performance on which task?
Is attention demanded to maintain static standing balance?
Why would non-amputees show no body sway while performing same task as amputees?
Non-amputees need less attention for primary task
In the pitching a horseshoe study, which secondary parts need the most attention demands?
Parts 1 and 3, beginning and just before release
What does width allow you to do?
What are two types of widths in attention?
Broad and narrow
Which focus of attention is best?
External, task specific
What is visual selective attention?
Using visual cues by conducting a visual search
Why is there no statistical difference between hand-held and hands-free cell phone use?
It's not the phone that is distracting but the conversation
Is there a difference between males and females when it comes to cell phone use while driving?
Why is cell phone use relevant to attention?
The secondary task demands too much attention
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