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Arts and Humanities
Creative Thinking: Writing
Terms in this set (45)
How do Children learn to write (different stages of writing)
o Prewriting: Primarily drawings
• Tells about own writing
o Early emergent: Drawings and words to convey meaning
• 1-2 sentences
o Emergent: Relationship between picture and print
• Reads own writing with fluency
• Uses temporary spelling
o Early developing: Writes about familiar topics/experiences
• Simple words and some high frequency correct
o Developing: Several sentences about topic
• List-like details
o Early independent: Series of related ideas in an organized, logical sequence
• Descriptive language
• Clear beginning, middle and end
o Independent: Clear focus throughout text
o Purpose: To teach proper writing conventions
o Key: Children compose a sentence to write and repeat it several times, segmenting it into words
• Pronounce each word "stretching" it out
• Take turns writing the letters to spell on the chart paper
• Children write in one color pen, teacher in another
• White correction tape to fix errors
• Reread sentences from beginning after each new word added
o Benefit: Scaffolds students writing
Language experience approach
o Based on children's language and experiences
o Children dictate words and sentences about their experiences and the teacher writes down what the children say
o Text they develop becomes reading material
o Teacher and students discuss topic to be focused on in the dictation
o Students dictates an account/story to the teacher who records the statements to construct the basic reading material
o Student reads story several times (reading comprehension)
o Students move from reading their own dictation to reading other author materials as they develop confidence and skill with the reading process
o Teacher transcribes the text for the students as the student sounds out the words.
o Independent Writing
o Reading Aloud
o Write for authentic purpose
o Share task of writing
o Use conversation to support process
o Create common text
o Conventions of written language
o Letter-sound connections
o Connect reading and writing
o Teach explicitly
How often should children write?
o Students must have uninterrupted blocks of time each day to write. Regular predicable time for writing workshop at least 4 times a week for 45-60 minutes.
Steps in Writing Process
a. Choose a topic
b. Gather and organize ideas
c. Consider the potential audience
d. Identify the purpose of the writing
e. Choose an appropriate genre
a. Write a rough draft
b. Craft leads to grab readers' attention
c. Emphasize content rather than conventions
a. Share draft in revising groups
b. Participate constructively in discussions about classmates drafts
c. Make changes to reflect the comments of classmates and the teacher
d. Make substantive rather than only minor changes between the first and final drafts
e. Writers clarify and refine ideas in their drafts during revising
a. Set drafts aside for a few days
b. Proofread compositions to locate errors
c. Correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar errors
d. Putting the piece of writing into its final form
a. Publish writing in an appropriate form
b. Share completed writing with an appropriate audience
• Difference between revising and editing
Essential Elements of writing workshop
o Independent Writing
• Students use the writing process as they develop and refine their writing and they conference with classmates and the teachers about their writing
• The class gathers together to share their new publications, often during the last 5 to 10 minutes of the workshop.
• Teacher provide 15 to 30 minute lessons on writing workshop procedures and information about authors, writing strategies and the writer's craft including conventions
o Reading Aloud
• Teachers read picture books and chapter books aloud to share examples of effective writing.
Key names in the field of writing
o Andrea McCarrier, Gay Su Pinnell, Irene Fountas (interactive writing)
o Lucy Calkins—wrote The Art of Teaching Writing
o Janet Emig
o Donald Graves—Father of Writing Workshop
o Vary how they write depending on their purpose for writing and their audience
o Use the writing process flexibly
o Focus on developing ideas and communicating effectively
o Turn to classmates for feedback on how well they're communicating
o Monitor how well they're communicating in the piece of writing
o Use appropriate formats and structures for stories, poems, letters and other texts
o Use a variety of strategies and self-regulate their strategy use
o Postpone attention to mechanical correctness until the end of the writing process
o Assess their writing according to how well they communicate with their audience
o Understand the recursive nature of the writing process and turn to classmates for feedback about how well they're communicating.
o More responsive to the needs of the audience who will read the papers and work to organize their papers in a cohesive manner
Less Capable Writers
o Seem reluctant to use unfamiliar strategies or those that require much effort.
o Don't monitor their writing and move through the writing process in a lockstep, linear approach, applying a limited number of strategies
o They list everything they know about a topic with little thought about meeting the needs of their readers or putting related ideas together.
o Unaware of audience, purpose, and form
o View writing as putting words on paper
o Are unable to collaborate with classmates
o Unable to assess their own writing
o Don't vary how they format or structure writing according to the assignment
o Use few strategies most often a knowledge-telling strategy
o More concerned with mechanics than with ideas
o Assume that longer is better and neater is better.
o Evaluate student's current skills in order to figure out where to start teaching them and evaluate what they need to accomplish
• Writers expand their ideas by adding vivid details (brainstorm ideas, locate more information in books)
• Writers review and evaluate their compositions and judge how well they met the goals they set (complete rubrics and checklists)
• Writers design the layout for their final copies and ensure that their writing is legible and their illustrations enhance the text (decide on a title, make final copies, use Microsoft Word)
• Writers collect words, sentences, and ideas for writing, often using their background knowledge, information they've collected through research, or other classroom resources (make a list, draw a picture, create a cluster, read or reread books)
• Writers monitor their progress and coordinate writing strategies (reread rough drafts, ask self-questions, get feedback from classmate or teacher)
• Writers limit their topics so they're specific and manageable (use five "W" questions, examine books and internet articles, create clusters or other graphic organizers)
• Writers group, sequence, and prioritize ideas for their compositions (create a graphic organizer, make an outline)
• Writers carefully reread their writing to identify errors in spelling and other conventions (reread rough drafts, proofread with a classmates, work at editing center, use a red pen to edit)
• Writers ask themselves questions as they develop their compositions (have question and answer conversation with themselves)
• Writers review their writing to check the flow of ideas and determine whether they're meeting their goals (reread part or all of rough drafts)
• Writers add words and sentences, make substitutions and deletions, and move text around to communicate more effectively. (Participate in a revising group, work at revision center, use a blue pen to revise)
o Setting Goals
• Writers set action-oriented goals to direct their writing (make a list of goals)
How to use strategy in the classroom
• Explicit instruction
• Provide explicit instruction about the strategy. They explain what the strategy does and how it helps students to become better writers. They talk about how and when to use the strategy and they share examples of the strategy in mentor texts and anonymous student samples. Teachers often work with students to make a poster about the strategy
• Teacher demonstrates the strategy as they write, revise, or edit a piece of writing, and while they're working, they think aloud to share their thought processes and the decisions they make.
• Teachers scaffold students' use of the strategies they're learning and their regulation of those strategies through collaborative writing activities. Teachers work with he class as they compose a piece of writing together, and then students work in small groups and with partners to apply the strategies in other guided writing activities before they're expected to use them independently.
• Independent application
• Teachers support students as they transition to applying the strategy independently and they encourage writers to reflect on how they regulate their use of a particular writing strategy.
Developmental Stages of spelling
• Uses scribbles, random marks
• Linear, wave-like writing
• Strings of letters, letter like symbols
• May record 1-2 sounds per word
o Letter Name Spellers
• Initial and final consonants
• Initial consonant blends and digraphs
• Short vowels
• Affricates (dr, tr)
• Final consonant blends and digraphs
o Within Word Patterns Spellers
• Vowel-consonant -e (bake)
• R controlled vowel (hurt)
• Other common long vowel patterns (ai, ay, ee, ea, oa)
• Complex consonant units (src, dge)
• Abstract vowels (ou, ow, oi)
• Use but confuse spelling patters (wayt)
o Syllable Juncture
• Double and e drop with ed and ing endings
• Other doubling at syllable juncture
• Long vowel patterns in the stressed syllable
• R-Controlled vowels in stressed syllable
• Vowel patterns in the unstressed syllable
o Derivational Constancy
• Silent and sounded consonant occurs in word pairs
• Consonant changes (confess and confession)
• Vowel changes (compose and composition)
• Latin-derived suffices
• Assimilated prefixes
Reading like a writer
o It could be only through reading that writers learn all the intangibles that they know
o To learn to write, children must read in a special kind of way. They must read like a writer
o Children can learn about the craft of writing by listening to and reading quality literature
o Awareness of how words should flow together is so strongly influences by the texts we read that it is difficult to separate ourselves from what we have read.
6 Traits of writing
o Word choice
o Sentence fluency
The role of Children's Literature in teaching the craft of writing
o When we share great pieces of writing with our students it makes the students better writers
o Those who read great literature= better writers
o Incorporation of literacy elements
• Strong leads
• Powerful endings
• Word choice
o Commonly accepted rules of written Standard English; they include capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, grammar and usage, and formatting considerations that are specific to poems, scripts, letters and other genres.
o Standards based assessment
o Only one or two papers are used for any grade level
Primary Trait Scoring
o Focus is on whether students have incorporated specific traits in their compositions; these traits vary, depending on the assignment.
o This approach is writing assessment is based on two ideas
• That compositions are written using genres for specific purposes and audiences
• That writing should be judged according to situation-specific criteria.
o Determine which traits are essential to the writing project; these are the traits that will be scored
o Develop a scoring guide with a list of the primary traits to use in assigning scores.
o Teachers use it when they specify what they expect their students to include in their compositions.
o Teachers read students' compositions for a holistic or general impression, which they use to sort papers into three, four, five or six piles, ranging from strongest to weakest.
o Then the compositions in each pile can be awarded a numerical score or letter grade.
o All aspects of the composition, including conventions, affect the score, but none are specifically identified or directly addressed using a checklist.
o Instead, the focus is on the overall performance.
o Often used for large-scale school, district, state or national writing assessments because it's rapid and efficient.
Anecdotal assessment (notes)
o As they observe students writing informally—making clusters or writing in journals and doing writing projects using the writing process.
o Anecdotal notes provide rich details about students' writing development, their ability to use strategies, and their knowledge of writing traits.
o Teachers identify patterns that emerge over time, identify strengths and weaknesses, and make inferences about students' writing development.
o It's important that teachers make time to both record and analyze anecdotal notes.
o Collections of writings
o Provide evidence of both the products students create and the process they use
o Rough drafts that have been revised and edited, prewriting notes and diagrams, and checklists and rubrics that have been marked—are included to document learning.
o Reflection is an important component of portfolio assessment because it requires students to think about their development as writers.
Benefits to large scale writing tests
o These tests highlight the importance of writing for teachers, students and parents
o Teachers who take part in scoring writing tests learn more about teaching writing
o Teachers are most likely to emphasize writing instruction and to raise their expectations about students' performance.
How to prepare students for large scale writing tests
o Use the writing process to develop and refine compositions
o Vary their writing according to particular genres
o Spell most words conventionally
o Use Standard English grammar
o Demonstrate legible and fluent handwriting
o Teachers teach students how to read prompts and recognize the specialized vocabulary used in them through a series of minilessons
o Model how to interpret a prompt and how to write responses and score them using a rubric.
o Provide sample papers for students to examine and score to get a better understanding of what they're expected to do.
How and why do we assess?
o Record students' growth
o Keep grades
o Prepare students for state writing tests
o Documenting student's growth as writers
o Informing students and parents about writing achievements
o Guiding writing instruction
o Substantiating that students meet grade-level standards
o Evaluating the effectiveness of the instructional program.
Uses for journals in the classroom
o Learning logs
• Ongoing record or learning as it happens
o Dialogue journals
• Students correspond with the teacher about events in their own lives and school experiences and teachers read and respond as interested readers to continue the written conversation.
o Double entry journals
• Students divide each page into two columns and they record quotes or other information in the left column and write their responses in the right column.
o Stimulated Journals
• Students assume the role of a book character or historical personality and write entries from that person's viewpoint.
Best ways for teaching journal writing
o Teachers often introduce journal writing on the first day of school.
o They choose the type of journals that's most appropriate for their students.
o When teachers introduce personal or dialogue journals, they develop a list of possible writing topics that they display in the classroom so students can refer to it when they have trouble thinking of something tow rite about.
o When teachers introduce reading logs, double-entry journals or simulated journals, they teach about the format and share sample entries from mentor texts.
o Teachers teach minilessons about each type of journal.
o All journals are informal, the purpose of the journal, the information included in the entries and the point of view of the writer vary.
o Teachers explain the procedures for gathering ideas, writing in an journal and sharing with classmates.
o Drawing pictures
• young children often draw pictures in journals and then add a sentence or two about the pictures; older students also draw pictures to explore complex ideas or to remember story events or to clarify their thinking about confusing parts of a story
• students generate a list of words or ideas on a topic when they brainstorm they think about the topic and then list as many examples, descriptors, or characteristics as possible.
o Making charts
• students draw maps, charts and diagrams and add labels to think more deeply about information. Sometimes organizing words graphically is more effective than writing in paragraph style.
• Students will quickwrite when they write informally, rambling on paper, generating ideas and making connections among the ideas. They often write on a topic for 5 to 10 minutes letting their thoughts flow from their minds to their pens without focusing on mechanics or revisions.
Types of letters
• They assume the identity of a historical or literary figure and write letters from that person's viewpoint.
• Pen-pal letters
• Courtesy Letters
• Invitations and thank-you notes are two other types of friendly letters that students write.
• To seek information
• To complain and compliment
• To transact business
• Used to communicate with businesses, local newspapers, and governmental agencies.
• Students write businesses to order products ask questions and complain about or praise specific products.
• They can also write to local, state, and national government leaders to express their concerns, make suggestions, or seek information.
When/How to teach letter writing
o Introducing letter writing
• The teacher begins by modeling how to write, deliver and respond to short notes and soon the children are exchanging messages.
• Minilessons- teaching students to write letters, however, involves more than just assigning letter-writing activities; teachers regularly teach minilessons so students will know how to write letters and how to format and style of letters differ from journals and other genres.
• Topics for minilessons include using the letter-writing forms, focusing on audience, organizing information in the letter and asking questions to encourage a response. Teachers also teach minilessons on capitalizing proper nouns, addressing an envelope, paragraphing and using courteous phrases.
• Writing workshops—teachers combine instruction about letter writing with authentic opportunities to write, send, and receive letters.
How to assess personal writing
o Personal Journals
• Young children and English learners make entries in personal journals to develop writing fluency; teachers monitor growth by answering these questions
• Are children's entries getting longer?
• Are children's voices emerging from their writing?
• Are children spelling more high-frequency words correctly?
o Dialogue Journals
• To engage reluctant writers, get acquainted with new students, and develop novice writers' fluency.
• Teachers monitor students' growth by reflecting on these questions
• Are students' entries getting longer?
• Are students responding to the teacher's questions?
• Are students asking questions?
• Are students using more conventional spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in their entries?
o Reading logs
• Teachers monitor students' logs to determine whether their entries reflect their growing understanding of the story
• Do entries show evidence that students understand the characters and plot?
• Do entries demonstrate students' involvement with the story?
• Do entries indicate that students have made literary connections and evaluated the story?
o Double-Entry Journals
• Teachers assess them using the questions for reading logs.
• Do entries show evidence that students understand the characters and plot?
• Do entries demonstrate students' involvement with the story?
• Do entries indicate that students have made literary connections and evaluated the story?
o Simulated Journals
• Teachers check that students have completed the assigned number of entries and evaluate the quality of their writing by answering these questions:
• Do the entries persuasively reflect the viewpoint of a book character or historical figure?
• Do the entries incorporate significant story events or relevant historical details?
• Do the entries indicate an appreciation of the book's theme or the historical period?
o Teachers assess letters differently.
o Teachers now recognize the importance of audience and understand that students write better when people will read their writing.
o It's unimaginable for the teacher to place a grade at the top of the letter before mailing it; instead teacher develops rubrics and checklists to use in evaluating the letters without marking on them
How to Write a Letter
o Gather and organize information for a letter
o Review type of letter form
o Draft the letter
o Revise the letter
o Edit the letter
o Make final copy
o Stories about selected events in a person's life or the person's entire life
o Account of a person's life written by someone else
o They consult a variety of sources of information. The best source of information is the person himself or herself, and through interviews, writers can learn many things many things about the person.
o Diaries, letters, photographs, mementos, historical records, recollections of people who know that person
o Biographies of well-known figures such as explorers, presidents, athletes and movie stars.
o Bio Poems
• About historical figures, contemporary personalities, and themselves
o Collaborative Biographies
• Students share the writing. They divide the biography into pages or chapters and students each write on section using the writing process to draft and refine their writing.
o Multigenre Biography
• Students write and draw a variety of pieces about a person to create a multi-genre biography
• Each item is a complete piece by itself and contributes to the overall impact of the biography.
o First person accounts of single events from the writer's own life
o Focus on one experience
o Written in first-person I
o Organized in the beginning, middle and end
o Includes dialogue and rich sensory details
o Explains how the event has affected the writer
o Students set a dramatic tone so readers live through the event vicariously and understand what the experiences means to them.
o Young children's personal narratives are often written with an illustration and a line of text on each page.
o Sketches of the writer's entire life
o Written in first person, but are more complete usually spanning a person's entire life and the events are presented in chronological order.
o Students greatest source of information for writing is their own experiences, and when they write autobiographies, they draw from this wealth of experiences.
o Life stories assume a variety of forms, poems, and students also share their life stories by collecting items that represent their lives in life boxes and "me" quilts.
o All About Me Books
• There first autobiographies usually contain information such as the child's birthday, family members, friends and favorite activities, with drawings as well as text used to present the information
o Life Boxes
• Autobiographies aren't always written in books
• Children can collect four or five small items that represent themselves and events in their lives and place these things in a shoebox, cereal box, or other container.
• Items such as a baby blanket, a stuffed animal, family photos, vacation postcards, pictures of favorite toys or other items cut from magazines, maps, showing places the child has visited, a letter from grandma, a mask worn on Halloween, a favorite book or an award the child has received.
o Bio Bags
• Select three, four, or five books that are important to them, write brief comments explaining why they value each book, insert the writing inside the book, and put the books into a decorated bag.
o "Me" Quilts
• Draw a self-portrait and a series of eight pictures to symbolize special events in their lives, then they attach the pictures to a large sheet of butcher paper to look like a quilt with the self-portrait in the middle.
• Students write paragraphs to describe each picture add these to the quilt and then share their quilts with classmates.
o Chapter Books
• Students write chapter books about important events in their lives. They choose three, four, or five important events to write about and use the writing process to develop and refine their compositions.
Essential elements of Writer's Workshop
o Schedule writing workshop into lesson plans
o Children need time to tell stories before they write stories and time to hear literature with rich vocabulary
o Organize physical classroom environment
• Whole group area
o Collection of literature
• Immersed in wonderful, quality literature
o Resources for writers
• Word walls
• Interactive bulletin boards
• Writing Models
• Anchor charts
• Topic Lists
o Have a system of Writing Workshop
Characteristics of effective Mini-lessons
o Mentor texts
o Teacher example/model
o Work with group
o Work individually
How should teacher's conference with children about their writing?
o Ask them to talk first
o Start with their strengths
o And move to one thing you want to work one
Steps to Writing a Persuasive Letter
o Reason 1
o Reason 2
o Reason 3
o In the beginning writers hook the reader and state their position clearly.
o In the middle, they present three or more pieces of evidence to support their view; evidence includes common sense, facts, personal experiences, expert opinions, and quotes.
o In the end, writers lead readers to agree with their belief or to take action with a personal appeal, a prediction, or a summary of their arguments.
o The development of three (or more) reasons, a conclusion, this organization isn't equivalent to a traditional theme. Persuasive writing requires a more elaborate organization.
o Words or phrases such as "passed away" used to avoid a harsh reality
o Often used out of concern for people's feelings rather than to deceive.
o Suggests something shady or underhanded
o Designed to influence person's beliefs and actions
Strategies for teaching children to write persuasive letters
o Students use a process approach to develop and refine their persuasive letters and essays. Teachers often write a class collaboration composition with students to model the process before they begin writing their own letters or essays. (THREE WAYS: Emotional appeal, based on reason, appeal to character)
o Students use the writing process to develop persuasive essays and letters
o During prewriting they identify a position and plan their arguments using a graphic organizer.
o They include at least three reasons or pieces of evidence for their position, and older students also identify counterarguments that they need to refute.
o Next students write the write draft, incorporating the information listed on the graphic organizer.
o They revise and edit their rough drafts using feedback from classmates and the teacher.
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