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Terms in this set (45)

o Elaborating
• Writers expand their ideas by adding vivid details (brainstorm ideas, locate more information in books)
o Evaluating
• Writers review and evaluate their compositions and judge how well they met the goals they set (complete rubrics and checklists)
o Formatting
• Writers design the layout for their final copies and ensure that their writing is legible and their illustrations enhance the text (decide on a title, make final copies, use Microsoft Word)
o Generating
• Writers collect words, sentences, and ideas for writing, often using their background knowledge, information they've collected through research, or other classroom resources (make a list, draw a picture, create a cluster, read or reread books)
o Monitoring
• Writers monitor their progress and coordinate writing strategies (reread rough drafts, ask self-questions, get feedback from classmate or teacher)
o Narrowing
• Writers limit their topics so they're specific and manageable (use five "W" questions, examine books and internet articles, create clusters or other graphic organizers)
o Organizing
• Writers group, sequence, and prioritize ideas for their compositions (create a graphic organizer, make an outline)
o Proofreading
• Writers carefully reread their writing to identify errors in spelling and other conventions (reread rough drafts, proofread with a classmates, work at editing center, use a red pen to edit)
o Questioning
• Writers ask themselves questions as they develop their compositions (have question and answer conversation with themselves)
o Rereading
• Writers review their writing to check the flow of ideas and determine whether they're meeting their goals (reread part or all of rough drafts)
o Revising
• Writers add words and sentences, make substitutions and deletions, and move text around to communicate more effectively. (Participate in a revising group, work at revision center, use a blue pen to revise)
o Setting Goals
• Writers set action-oriented goals to direct their writing (make a list of goals)
o Teachers often introduce journal writing on the first day of school.
o They choose the type of journals that's most appropriate for their students.
o When teachers introduce personal or dialogue journals, they develop a list of possible writing topics that they display in the classroom so students can refer to it when they have trouble thinking of something tow rite about.
o When teachers introduce reading logs, double-entry journals or simulated journals, they teach about the format and share sample entries from mentor texts.
o Teachers teach minilessons about each type of journal.
o All journals are informal, the purpose of the journal, the information included in the entries and the point of view of the writer vary.
o Teachers explain the procedures for gathering ideas, writing in an journal and sharing with classmates.
o Drawing pictures
• young children often draw pictures in journals and then add a sentence or two about the pictures; older students also draw pictures to explore complex ideas or to remember story events or to clarify their thinking about confusing parts of a story
o Brainstorming
• students generate a list of words or ideas on a topic when they brainstorm they think about the topic and then list as many examples, descriptors, or characteristics as possible.
o Making charts
• students draw maps, charts and diagrams and add labels to think more deeply about information. Sometimes organizing words graphically is more effective than writing in paragraph style.
o Quickwriting
• Students will quickwrite when they write informally, rambling on paper, generating ideas and making connections among the ideas. They often write on a topic for 5 to 10 minutes letting their thoughts flow from their minds to their pens without focusing on mechanics or revisions.
o Personal Journals
• Young children and English learners make entries in personal journals to develop writing fluency; teachers monitor growth by answering these questions
• Are children's entries getting longer?
• Are children's voices emerging from their writing?
• Are children spelling more high-frequency words correctly?
o Dialogue Journals
• To engage reluctant writers, get acquainted with new students, and develop novice writers' fluency.
• Teachers monitor students' growth by reflecting on these questions
• Are students' entries getting longer?
• Are students responding to the teacher's questions?
• Are students asking questions?
• Are students using more conventional spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in their entries?
o Reading logs
• Teachers monitor students' logs to determine whether their entries reflect their growing understanding of the story
• Do entries show evidence that students understand the characters and plot?
• Do entries demonstrate students' involvement with the story?
• Do entries indicate that students have made literary connections and evaluated the story?
o Double-Entry Journals
• Teachers assess them using the questions for reading logs.
• Do entries show evidence that students understand the characters and plot?
• Do entries demonstrate students' involvement with the story?
• Do entries indicate that students have made literary connections and evaluated the story?
o Simulated Journals
• Teachers check that students have completed the assigned number of entries and evaluate the quality of their writing by answering these questions:
• Do the entries persuasively reflect the viewpoint of a book character or historical figure?
• Do the entries incorporate significant story events or relevant historical details?
• Do the entries indicate an appreciation of the book's theme or the historical period?
o Teachers assess letters differently.
o Teachers now recognize the importance of audience and understand that students write better when people will read their writing.
o It's unimaginable for the teacher to place a grade at the top of the letter before mailing it; instead teacher develops rubrics and checklists to use in evaluating the letters without marking on them
o Sketches of the writer's entire life
o Written in first person, but are more complete usually spanning a person's entire life and the events are presented in chronological order.
o Students greatest source of information for writing is their own experiences, and when they write autobiographies, they draw from this wealth of experiences.
o Life stories assume a variety of forms, poems, and students also share their life stories by collecting items that represent their lives in life boxes and "me" quilts.
o All About Me Books
• There first autobiographies usually contain information such as the child's birthday, family members, friends and favorite activities, with drawings as well as text used to present the information
o Life Boxes
• Autobiographies aren't always written in books
• Children can collect four or five small items that represent themselves and events in their lives and place these things in a shoebox, cereal box, or other container.
• Items such as a baby blanket, a stuffed animal, family photos, vacation postcards, pictures of favorite toys or other items cut from magazines, maps, showing places the child has visited, a letter from grandma, a mask worn on Halloween, a favorite book or an award the child has received.
o Bio Bags
• Select three, four, or five books that are important to them, write brief comments explaining why they value each book, insert the writing inside the book, and put the books into a decorated bag.
o "Me" Quilts
• Draw a self-portrait and a series of eight pictures to symbolize special events in their lives, then they attach the pictures to a large sheet of butcher paper to look like a quilt with the self-portrait in the middle.
• Students write paragraphs to describe each picture add these to the quilt and then share their quilts with classmates.
o Chapter Books
• Students write chapter books about important events in their lives. They choose three, four, or five important events to write about and use the writing process to develop and refine their compositions.