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AnS 214L Practical (2)
Terms in this set (207)
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What are four functions of the Urinary System?
1. Filter blood
2. Regulate pH
3. Maintains electrolyte balance
4. Collects and stores urine
Where is urine stored in mammals?
Where is urine stored in avians?
What is the major nitrogen compound in avians?
What is the major nitrogen compound in mammals?
What is the function of the renal cortex?
Filter blood; Producing glomerular filtrate
What is the function of the renal medulla?
Converts blood to urine through the:
Renal pyramids: Convert filtrate into urine
Renal columns: supports renal pyramids
What is the function of the renal pelvis?
Receives urine from collecting ducts
What two things make up the nephron?
Renal corpuscle: filters blood (glomerulus and glomerular capsule)
Renal tubule: converts filtrate into urine
What does the Adrenal Cortex secrete?
Aldosterone and Cortisone
What does the Adrenal Medulla secrete?
Epinephrine (adrenalin) and Norepinephrine
What does Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) mean?
Filtrate produced per minute by both kidneys
What is Aldosterone?
Steroid, Increases Na+ retention
What does Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) mean?
Increases water (H2O) absorption
What is the function of Renin?
Converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin 1
What is secretes Natriuretic hormone and what is its function?
Heart Atria, Decreases Na+ retention
What is the function of Erythropoietin?
Produces red blood cells
Shell, outside layer
Marrow, middle layer
What are the functions of teeth?
What are the functions of the tongue?
Prehension, mixing and taste
What do the salivary glands contain? (BMWs)
Water, Bicarbonate, Mucin, Salivary amylase
What is the function of the esophagus?
Connect pharynx to the stomach- transport food and drink (peristalsis)
What is the function of the stomach?
Storage, mixing and physical breakdown of food
What does the stomach produce?
Mucous, HCl, pepsinogen and intrinsic factor
What is produced in newborn mammals that curdles milk- allowing for longer residence and better digestion?
What is the esophageal sphincter?
A valve that allows entry of food into the stomach and prevents regurgitation
What is the pyloric sphincter?
A valve that controls stomach emptying
What are rugae and what is the function?
Longitudinal wrinkles inside the stomach- allow the stomach to expand as needed
What are the four secretions of gastric glands?
1. Goblet cells- secrete mucous
2. G cells- secrete gastrin
3. Chief cells- secrete pepsinogen
4. Parietal cells- secrete HCl and intrinsic factor
What is the greater omentum and what are produced here?
Overlays the stomach- leukocytes are produced here
What are 3 functions of the liver?
1. Processes nutrients and regulates nutrient levels in blood
2. produces IGF- 1
3. Makes plasma proteins
What are the functions of the gallbladder?
Stores and excretes bile
What digestive enzymes are produced by the pancreas?
Trypsinogen, Chymotrypsinogen, Procarboxypeptidase, Pancreatic lipase, Pancreatic amylase, Bicarbinate
What two hormones are produced by the pancreas?
Insulin and glucagon
What are the three sections of the small intestine and what are their functions?
Duodenum: receives bile from gall bladder
Jejunum: Absorption of Amino acids, Monosaccharides, Fatty acids and Calcium/Iron (FAT MACI)
Ileum: Absorption of bile salts, water, electrolytes and vitamin B12
What are the three sections of the large intestine and what are their functions?
Cecum: microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose
Colon: microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose and absorption of fermentation products/water
Rectum: formation of droppings
What are the 6 accessory organs of the digestive system?
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
What are the four stages of the rumination cycle and what are their functions?
Regurgitation: reticulum initiates regurgitation
Reinsalvation: addition of mucin and bicarbonate to assist in the breakdown of feed
Remastication: rechewing feed
Redeglutition: reswallowing feed
What is produced in the salivary glands of monogastrics but NOT ruminants?
What are the four components of the ruminants stomach and what are their functions?
Reticulum: initiates regurgitation
Rumen: microbial fermentation of feed and absorption of volatile fatty acids
Omasum: water absorption
Abomasum: true stomach; produces HCl, pepsinogen and intrinsic factor
What is the function of the esophageal groove (reticular groove)?
Causes milk to bypass the reticulum and rumen- not fermented
What 5 enzymes are produced by the pancreas?
Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic amylase
What are the three sections of the small intestine of the ruminant digestive system and what are their functions?
Duodenum (CAMEL): Carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, maltase, enterokinase and lactase
Jejunum (MACI): Monosaccharides, amino acids, calcium and iron
Ileum (WEBB): Water, electrolytes, bile salts and vitamin B12
condition of, state caused by
What is the function of the beak?
What is the function of the oropharynx in avians?
Joint area for digestive and respiratory systems
What is the function of the hyoid apparatus in avians?
Cartilage/bone that strengthens and supports the tongue
What is the function of salivary glands in avians?
Secrete mucin, bicarbonate and water
What is the palatine cleft?
Passage between oral and nasal cavities
What is the infundibular cleft?
Common opening of the eustachian tubes, permits pressure equalization in flight
What is the laryngeal cleft?
Opening into layrnx, closes to block food from entering the larynx
What is the function of the larynx?
Allows passage of air from oropharynx into trachea- contains no vocal cords in bird
What is the function of the trachea?
Transports air from larynx to bronchi
What is the syrinx and what is its function?
Y-shaped organ located at the base of the trachea, responsible for vocalization
What is the function of the esophagus in avians?
Passageway for feedstuffs from the oropharynx to crop and from crop to proventriculus
What is the crop?
Feed storage area- soaking and storage of feed occurs here
How many chambers are in an avian's heart?
What is the function of the spleen?
Recycles red blood cells
What is the proventriculus and its function?
Glandular stomach in birds- secretes pepsinogen for protein breakdown, HCl and mucous and gastrin
What is the ventriculus and its function?
Muscular part of digestive system- grinds feed (rocks and pebbles lodge here)
What is NOT produced in the small intestine of avians?
Where is the pancreas located in avians?
Inside the duodenal loop
What is Meckel's diverticulum and its function?
Yolk stalk remnant. Juncture of jejunum and ileum, produces lymphocytes
What is the hepatic portal system and its function?
Collects nutrients absorbed from digested tract and transports them directly to the liver
What are the two components of the avian large intestine and what are their functions?
Ceca: microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose- absorption of fermentation and volatile fatty acids/water
Colon: absorption of fermentation products from cecum- volatile fatty acids/vitamins/water. Fermentation is limited. Stores urine
What is the cloaca and its function?
Juncture of ureters, colon and reproductive system in birds
What is the function of Bursa of Fabricius?
What is the vent and its function?
External opening of cloaca- reproductive, urinary, fecal material exits
What kind of kidneys to avians and bovines have?
What is the function of the ureters?
Transport the urine
What are three functions of the male reproductive system?
1. produce sperm
2. produce testosterone
3. ejaculate semen during copulation
What make up the testes?
Seminiferous tubules, interstitial cells, sustenacular cells, rete testis, epididymis
What is the function of the seminiferous tubules?
What is the function of interstitial cells?
What is the function of sustenacular cells?
Prevents immune system from becoming sensitive to antigens, forms a blood-testis barrier- produces androgen binding protein
What is the function of the rete testis?
Carries sperm out of the seminiferous tubules into the head of the epididymis
What are the three parts of the epididymis?
Head, body, tail
What is the function of the head of the epididymis?
Fluid absorption to increase sperm concentration
What is the function of the body of the epididymis?
Maturation of sperm
What is the function of the tail of the epididymis?
Stores sperm to prevent being killed by high body temps
What is the vas deferens function?
Takes sperm from tail of epididymis to the urethra
What are the four accessory glands of the male reproductive system and what are their functions?
Ampulla: muscular widening of vas deferens- contracts to speed up ejaculation
Seminal Vesicles: supply proteins, sugars, citric acid
Prostate Gland: cleanse and lubricate urethra
Bulbourethral Gland: cleanse and lubricate urethra, supply gelatinous plug (boar, stallion)
What are three functions of the accessory glands/seminal plasma?
Neutralize residual acidity in urethra, supply nutrients for the sperm, activate the sperm
Sperm + ________________ = Semen
What two types of penises are there?
Fibro-elastic and Vascular
What is a fibro-elastic penis and what controls it?
Made of connective tissue, controlled by retractor penis muscle and sigmoid flexure
What is a vascular penis?
Made of vascular tissue with some connective tissue (humans, stallions)
When does an erection occur?
When the vascular penis fills with blood and increases in length and diameter
What are the four different temperature regulators for the male reproductive system?
Pampiniform plexus, Tunica dartos muscle, Cremaster muscle, Sweat glands (sometimes tail of epididymis)
How does the pampiniform plexus regulate temperature?
Cools arterial blood going into the testes and warms venous blood leaving the testes
How does the tunica dartos muscle regulate temperature?
Contracts when the testes are cold and expands when they are warm
How does the cremaster muscle regulate temperature?
Pulls the testes closer or farther from the body depending upon temperature
How do the sweat glands regulate temperature?
Wicking away heat by using evaporative cooling
cutting out, excision
What are the three functions of the female mammalian reproductive system?
1. Produce ova
2. Produce female hormones
3. Carry young until parturition
What does the ovary form?
What does the ovary synthesize?
Progesterone, estrogen and other sex hormones
What are the three stages of ovarian structure after ovulation?
Corpus hemorrhagicum (bloody body), Corpus luteum, Corpus albicans
What are the 8 stages of ovarian structures?
Primordial follicle, Primary follicle, Secondary follicle, Antral follicle, Ovulation-Ready Antral follicle, Corpus Hemorrhagicum, Corpus luteum, Corpus albicans
What is the function of the primordial follicle?
Surrounds ovum with squamous follicular cells
What is the function of the primary follicle?
Contains ovum, one layer of granulosa cells
What is the function of the secondary follicle?
Contains ovum surrounded by two or more layers of granulosa cells
What is the function of the antral follicle?
Contains antrum (space filled with follicular fluid), secretes follicular fluid
What is the function of the ovulation ready antral follicle?
Contains many layers of granulosa cells, mature follicle, ovulate-expelling the egg amidst a cloud of follicular fluid
What is the function of the corpus hemorrhagicum (CH)?
First ovarian structure produced after ovulation. Filled with blood
What is the function of the corpus luteum (CL)?
Produces progesterone. Maintained during pregnancy
What is the function of the corpus albicans? (CA)?
CL turns into the CA when implantation does not occur in the uterus
What are the three female hormones?
Estrogen, Progesterone, Prostaglandin F2a
What is estrogen produced by and what is it responsible for?
Produced by follicles- responsible for libido, secondary sex characteristics and maternal behavior
What is progesterone produced by and what is it responsible for?
Produced by Corpus Luteum- responsible for quieting the uterus during pregnancy
What is prostaglandin F2a produced by and what is it responsible for?
Produced by the uterus- responsible for lysing the corpus luteum
What are the six structures of the female mammalian reproductive tract?
Oviduct, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, Clitoris, Vulva
What does the oviduct consist of?
Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus and ampullary-isthmus junction
What is the function of the infundibulum?
Catches the egg during ovulation
What is the function of the ampulla?
Transports the ovum from the infundibulum to the isthmus
What is the function of the isthmus?
Second part of oviduct, connects ampulla to uterus- carries fertilized egg (zygote) to uterus
What is the function of the ampullary-isthmus junction?
Site of fertilization
What does the uterus consist of?
Uterine horns and uterine body- where pregnancy is established (nutrient exchange between mother and fetus occurs via placenta)
What are the three tissue layers of the uterus and their functions?
Endometrium: innermost layer- secrets histrotroph that provides nutrition to embryo
Myometrium: middle layer- expels the fetus during parturition and causes cramps during menstruaton
Perimentrium: outermost layer
What is the cervix?
Passageway between uterus and vagina
What three things make up the cervix and what are their functions?
Protective: prevents microorganisms from entering uterus causing infection
Sperm Reservoir: Semen is stored in the crevices
Lubrication: during parturition in women it will dilate 10 cm
What is the female external genitalia?
Which uterine type is present in humans and primates?
Which uterine type is present in rodents and lagomorphs?
Which uterine type is present in pigs, cows, mares, sheep and goats?
What is the function of the placenta?
Responsible to nutrient and gas exchange between the mother and the developing fetus
What are the three placental membranes?
Amnion, Allantois, Chorion
What is the function of the amnion?
Filled with amniotic fluid- innermost membrane
What is the function of the allantois?
"Water breaks"- middle membrane
What is the function of the chorion?
Contains necrotic tips, don't receive nutrients, reduces hormonal transfer from embryo to embryo- outermost membrane
What placental type is commonly found in pigs and horses?
What placental type is commonly found in ruminants?
What placental type is commonly found in dogs and cats?
What placental type is commonly found in primates and rodents?
condition of or state of
knowledge of, science of
Where are the testes found in avians?
Where is the epididymis located in avians?
Located at the hilus of the testis. Increase sperm motility and sperm fertilizing capacity
What are the functions of the Vas Deferens in avians?
Sperm storage, maximizing motility and fertilizing capacity of the sperm, sperm maturation, and adding accessory fluid to the sperm
What receives sperm from the vas deferens?
What is the ovary responsible for in avians?
Ova production and estrogen production
What are follicles?
Reproductive gametes of the female
Where is the site of ovulation in avians?
What are the five parts of the oviduct in avians?
Infundibulum, Magnum, Isthmus, Uterus, Vagina
What is the function of the infundibulum of avians?
Catches ova- location of sperm storage and fertilization
What is the function of the magnum of avians?
Secretes the albumen protein or egg white
What is the function of the isthmus of avians?
Two shell membranes are deposited
What is the function of the uterus of avians?
Plumping, taking up of water- egg shell and shell pigment diposited
What is the function of the vagina of avians?
Rotates the egg from pointed end down to round end down
What does the utero-vaginal juncture provide?
Provides a storage area for sperm after copulation until oviposition occurs
How long can avian sperm be stored and remain viable?
Up to 42 days
How long is the egg in the infundibulum?
How long does it take for the egg white to cover the yolk in magnum?
How long does it take for the outer shell membrane to be placed on the egg in the isthmus?
1 1/4 hours
How long does plumping take in the uterus?
20 3/4 hours
How long does it take the vagina to rotate the egg?
When does oviposition occur?
30 min after the egg has rotated
What is the magnum responsible for?
Secretion of egg albumen protein
What is the isthmus responsible for?
Placement of inner and outer shell membranes
What is the uterus responsible for?
Taking up water, depositing shell and shell pigment onto egg
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