NCSU PSY 376 Final Exam
Terms in this set (263)
Behaviorist theory is also known as _________ theory.
Sigmund Freud is credited as the father of the psychoanalytic perspective?
Each year, about ________ percent of infants are born without defects.
The fetal period is marked by the appearance of _____________.
Sperm contain _____________ chromosomes' worth of genetic material.
The _____ is administered a few days after birth to assess the newborn's neurological functioning, including the strength of 20 inborn reflexes, responsiveness to the physical and social environment, and changes in state.
The first stage of childbirth, labor, typically lasts ____ to ____ hours for a woman having her first child.
A _____________ is a way of organizing a set of observations or facts into comprehensive explanations of how something works.
The ________________ consists of relations and interactions among microsystems.
In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, cultural values, legal and political practices, and other elements of the society at large fall within the ______________.
The second stage of childbirth is _____.
_______________, which emerged as an alternative to psychoanalytic theories, focuses only on behavior that can be observed and objectively verified.
A teratogen is an agent that causes damage to prenatal development but does not produce lasting defects.
Fetal deaths, premature births, and low birth weight are associated with maternal smoking.
According to the concept of ________________, behavior is more likely to recur in the future if it is reinforced but less likely to recur if it is punished.
According to _________ theory, people actively process information and their thoughts and feelings influence their behavior.
According to Piaget, children and adults learn by interacting with their environments and organizing what they learn into ________________.
_____________ are master cells that have the capacity to generate into muscle cells, blood cells, brain cells, and more.
At birth, vision is nearly adult-like
The beliefs, values, customs, and skills of a group are referred to as ______.
After birth, which part of the body grows last using the proximodistal growth principal?
The loss of unused neural connections is a process called ______________. The creation of new neurons is called _________________.
synaptic pruning; neurogenesis
The growth that occurs in response to learning experiences is called experience-dependent brain development.
Which sense is the most developed at birth?
The ability to control the large movements of the body is called:
Gross motor development
he understanding that objects continue to exist outside of sensory awareness is called_____________.
In the information processing system, the first step in getting information into the mind is________________.
What part of the information processing system is considered to be a control processor that directs the flow of information and regulates cognitive activities such as attention, action, and problem solving?
the central executive
The ability of a child to categorize objects helps advance a child's cognition, but it is not a critical part of cognitive development.
The process of quickly acquiring and retaining a word after hearing it applied a few times is called:
Children's height and rate of growth is closely related to:
that of their parents.
Between the ages of 2 and 6, children's appetite tends to:
Lateralization begins in toddlerhood and is influenced primarily by genetic factors
______________ refers to the process of the hemispheres of the brain becoming specialized to carry out different functions.
Effective scaffolding works within _________________, the gap between the child's competence level, what she can do alone, and what she can do with assistance.
the zone of proximal development
Most people have no memories prior to age 3. This phenomenon is known as _______________.
____________ refers to the set of cognitive abilities - such as attention, memory, and inhibitory control - that permit higher cognitive functions, including planning, decision-making, and goal setting.
When learning a new word, children apply it to other objects in the same category, a strategy known as _____________.
The lowest level of Kohlberg's moral stage is____________.
A(n) ____________ preschool allows children to choose among a variety of activities and play as a vehicle for learning.
Erikson's 3rd stage of psychosocial development, initiative vs. guilt, involves:
the development of purposefulness and pride in one's accomplishments.
A child's self-description is called a(n):
Children around the age of __________ tend to describe themselves in more abstract ways, shifting from concrete descriptions of behavior to trait-like psychological constructs.
The capacity to understand another person's emotion is called: ____________. The concern or sorrow for another person is called: __________________.
Parents who permit their children to make their own decisions at an early age, often before they are able, engage in a(an) __________ parenting style.
Parents who focus on their own needs rather than those of the child have a(an) __________ parenting style.
Which parenting style results in a parent most likely responding to a child's question of "why" with the answer "because I say so"?
authoritarian parenting style
According to the experts, how do children learn best?
When they are reinforced for good behavior.
Which of the following is not considered to be a mandated reporter of child maltreatment?
Everyday citizen who witnesses abuse
Excluding someone from social activities, withdrawing friendship, spreading rumors, or humiliating the person is known as ______________ and is more common in ___________.
relationsal aggression, girls
The cognitive-developmental explanation of gender role development that emphasizes information processing and environmental influences is called:
gender schema theory
Which view of adolescence views it as a time of universal and inevitable upheaval triggered by puberty and comprising ages 14 to 24?
Storm & stress
At which point in puberty do hormones impact adolescent's feelings of depression, irritability, and aggression?
Early in puberty
Why are breast development, deepening of the voice, growth of body hair, and changes in the skin all considered secondary sex characteristics?
Because they indicate physical maturation but are not directly related to fertility.
Which of the following is thought to delay the onset of puberty?
Exposure to severe stress
Abigail was asked to look at pictures of different facial expressions in a study of facial recognition among adolescents. She saw a photograph of people's faces depicting fear. If Abigail is like most adolescents, what did she think the emotion depicted in the photograph was showing?
Why is risky activity thought to decline in late adolescence?
Because adolescents are better at self-control, long-term planning, and inhibition of impulsive behavior.
Which stage of Piaget's scheme of cognitive development corresponds with adolescence?
Formal operational reasoning
Andrew knows that he needs to read his history text to learn the material, but he has to see the biology diagrams to understand the material. He uses acronyms to remember information in biology but makes up stories about the material in history. How does Andrew know this is how he learns best?
Andrew has developed the ability for metacognition.
How do adolescents express the personal fable?
They believe that they are special, unique, and invulnerable.
Amanda finds out that her city is planning on building a road through land that is rumored to have Native American burials on it. She organizes a protest and the group takes turns camping out on the land to prevent the trucks from building the road. Amanda is in which stage of Kohlberg's moral reasoning?
Stage 6 - Universal ethnical principles
Jenna is very careful not to hurt another person's feelings. She earned a spot as the team captain for her tennis team, but she knew that her teammate really wanted to be captain so she asked her coach to give it to the other player. Jenna's brother said she should not have done that because she earned it. What moral orientation is Jenna's behavior motivated by?
A care orientation
The organization and characteristics of middle school often do not fit young adolescents' needs, which means that there is little:
_____________ is a coherent sense of self.
Seventeen-year-old Janell has not yet committed to an identity but she is exploring her alternatives. Janell is excited about her future, is open to experience, and is an active problem solver. Janell demonstrates characteristics of identity _____.
______, in which parents are aware of their adolescents' whereabouts and companions, is associated with academic achievement, overall well-being, reduced sexual activity, and deters delinquent activity and substance use in youth of all ethnicities.
Telling another's secrets or teasing about sensitive topics is called ______ aggression.
De'Andre, age 16, is in his first serious relationship. Research shows that De'Andre's relationship will continue for:
nearly 2 years
Pedro belongs to a tightly knit peer group that consists of six close friends. This groups is called a(n):
The most frequent forms of online bullying involve:
name-calling and gossip
Which of the following statements about oral sex and vaginal intercourse among adolescents is true?
Adolescents are about as likely to engage in oral sex as vaginal intercourse.
______ develops in a process similar to other aspects of identity development—it entails a period of exploration and commitment.
Which of the following factors have contributed to the decline in adolescent pregnancy rates in the U.S.?
Later initiation of sexual activity and increased contraceptive use
The most common developmental problem of adolescence is _____.
Which of the following events are risk factors—particularly when combined with other stressors—that contribute to suicide?
loss of a friendship
What is the pattern of gradual age-related declines in physical functioning called?
What factor is associated with both free radicals and the shortening of telomeres?
Why is it difficult to avoid overeating as people age?
Because caloric needs drop between the ages of 25 and 50, and the metabolic rate gradually falls as muscle cells decline in number and size.
David, a 15-year-old boy, smokes marijuana on a daily basis. He thinks that it helps him to talk to friends. Most of his peer group smokes marijuana. What can we predict will happen when David is in his 20s?
David will most likely increase to daily use and dependence on marijuana in his 20s.
What is epistemic cognition?
The ways in which individuals understand how they arrive at ideas, beliefs, and conclusions.
Young adults tend to make the same emotion-fused thinking that adolescents engage in.
Which of the following is not an advancement in social development that is influenced by college attendance?
Easier time making friends
Why are nontraditional students better at making meaning of theoretical concepts?
Because they have life experience and knowledge of multiple roles that help.
Donna is not planning on attending college after high school. What are schools doing that will result in Donna not being prepared for the job market?
They are focusing more energy on college-bound students and no vocational training for students not attending college.
Which person illustrates the crystallization stage of occupational development?
Andrew is a 16-year-old boy who has met with his guidance counselor to discuss different career choices and possible majors in college.
David is listening to his grandson tell him a story. He is having difficulty following what his grandson is saying. When his grandson says, "I had fun," David thinks he said, "I had sun," and he asks him to repeat what he said (because "I have sun" didn't make sense). What is David experiencing?
Which of the following is not a way to slow the decline in the musculature of those in middle adulthood?
Take dietary supplements to slow fat gain and muscle loss
What is the most common symptom of perimenopause that women experience?
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is related to all of the following except:
Middle-aged adults who must meet the multiple demands of career and family as well as the demands of caring for two generations, their children and their elderly parents, are considered to be in the sandwich generation.
What permits adults to use their memory and crystallized intelligence more effectively?
When does expertise reach its peak in development?
Middle adulthood because they are able to solve problems efficiently by using abstract reasoning and making intuitive judgments.
What type of motivation do returning students show in college?
Which of the following is a way that stress harms health directly?
Increase in blood pressure
What is related to losses in bone density?
Which of Levinson's seasons of life is when adults reexamine their dreams of adolescence
and early adulthood and evaluate their progress?
The transition to middle adulthood
What characteristic is most often seen in individuals who have a crisis in midlife?
They have had upheavals at other times in their lives.
What has been found to be the biggest concern regarding aging for people in midlife?
Maintaining physical activity and avoiding dependence on family
Midlife adults who subjectively view themselves as younger than their chronological age tend to score higher on measures of well-being, mental health, and life satisfaction.
Which of the following Big 5 personality traits increases in middle adulthood?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of friendship in middle-adulthood?
Middle-aged adults have more friends in midlife than in young adulthood.
Which of the following is not a health benefit of marriage?
Married people are more successful in business than single people.
Why is the role of grandparent such an important one in today's society?
Because with increasing lifespans, many will spend one third of their lives as grandparents.
Job satisfaction is positively linked to both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for men, but for women, job satisfaction tends to be positively linked only to extrinsic rewards.
Why is retirement planning important?
Because retirement represents a major life transition, and those who plan have greater life satisfaction
The ways in which people grow, change, and stay the same throughout their lives, from birth to death, is known as _________ development.
Throughout the lifespan, we change physically, cognitively, and psychosocially. This illustrates the notion that development is _____.
Allison is approaching her 60th birthday. She realizes that her eyesight and hearing are not as good as they used to be, and when visiting her daughter in graduate school, climbing the stairs to the fourth floor has become more difficult. However, Allison has also become more patient over the years, is better at solving difficult problems, and has a more confident and favorable view of herself than she had in her 20s and 30s. This example shows that development is _____.
At the beginning of her first human development course in college, Vivienne wondered, "Am I the person I am today because of heredity, or did I become who I am because of my environment?" Vi's question reflects the ________ issue in lifespan development.
A _____ is a way of organizing a set of observations or facts into comprehensive explanations of how something works.
In contrast to Freud's theory, Erikson focused on the role of ___________ in shaping development.
the social world, society and culture
Each time Isabella sits down to feed her baby a bottle, she gently strokes the baby's head. One day, Isabella began stroking her daughter's head and noticed that the baby started sucking, even though it wasn't feeding time. The baby's association between having her head stroked and the presentation of food is an example of _______.
Each time 3-year-old Maddy uses her potty chair, her father puts a sticker on a chart. After earning five stickers, Maddy gets to pick out a small toy at the store. Maddy's father is using ______ to increase the likelihood that Maddy will continue to use the potty chair.
Professor Norris is interested in how children from different cultures acquire the cognitive skills necessary to be productive members of society. His research focuses on how adults and peers communicate culturally relevant knowledge, as well as the emphasis different cultures place on play and work. Professor Norris's research is consistent with ______ theory.
According to Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, your family, peers, and school represent your:
The ___________ in the female reproductive system guides sperm toward the ovum.
______ are master cells that have the capacity to generate into muscle cells, blood cells, brain cells, and more.
Marla is 4 weeks pregnant. She is in the ______ period of pregnancy.
The age of viability begins at about ___ weeks after conception.
Which of the following statements about teratogens is true?
Different teratogens can cause the same birth defect, and a variety of birth defects can result from the same teratogen.
Why is it difficult to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine and heroin?
Most of these babies were exposed to other substances, making it difficult to isolate the effect of each drug on prenatal development.
Exposure to chronic and severe stress during pregnancy is linked to:
The majority of women over the age of 35:
give birth to healthy babies.
Newborn Rosie received an Apgar score of 3. This means that Rosie:
is in serious condition and needs immediate medical attention.
Which growth pattern explains why an infant's head at birth is one third the size of its body?
Which growth pattern explains why a toddler catches a ball with both of his or her arms instead of with only one hand?
Ashley lives in Sweden where she receives paid maternity leave until her baby is 1 year old. What can we predict about Ashley's choice in feeding for her baby?
Ashley will most likely breast-feed her baby.
Which time period in a child's life is considered to be a very important time in terms of experience and neural development?
The first three years of life when connections are forming between neurons.
Which of the following is not an example of influences on experience- dependent brain development?
Practice using the vocal cords with babbling at approximately 3 months of
Newborns do not understand imitation; rather, their facial expressions naturally mimic others.
Which of the following behaviors is an example of deferred imitation?
Alex is a 12-month-old who was watching his older brother put blocks into
an ice cream bucket. A week later, Alex was sitting next to an ice cream
bucket and started putting blocks into the bucket.
What is the newest perspective as to why infants won't crawl across the visual cliff?
Infants avoid the deep side of the cliff because they perceive that they are unable to successfully navigate the drop.
Max is a baby who hears his father's voice and turns his head in the direction of the sound. He also tries to track where his father is in the room with his eyes. What is this an example of?
Voluntary reaching is an example of:
fine motor development.
The first developmental milestone infants reach is:
lifting their heads while lying on their stomachs.
In the information processing system, the first step in getting information into the mind is:
How does disequilibrium lead to cognitive growth?
Individuals experience a mismatch between existing schemas and reality,
which is confusing, so they are motivated to modify their cognitive schemas
to match reality
Bailey is an infant boy who is sitting in his car seat. He is waving his hands around and his thumb accidentally touches his cheek. He turns his head toward his thumb and he puts his thumb into his mouth. He begins to suck on it and finds that he likes it. He quickly learns to put his thumb into his mouth and suck on it whenever he wants to. What sensorimotor substage does this illustrate?
Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions
Rebecca was very distracted by her toy bunny when her mother was trying to get her dressed in the morning, so her mother took the bunny and put it behind the couch pillow. Rebecca crawled over to the couch and moved the pillow to get the bunny. According to Piaget, what cognitive advance has Rebecca developed?
Which part of the information processing system is an unlimited store that holds information indefinitely?
Maddie watches her mother hide her favorite toy behind the couch. After she gets down from her high chair after lunch, she crawls over to the couch and gets her toy. What part of memory is Maddie using?
John is a child who visited his grandma's house when he was a toddler. He went on a typical summer weekend with his parents. Casey is a child who visited her grandma's house when she was a toddler. She got to pick out a puppy from a litter her grandma's dog had. Which of the children will remember the visit to grandma's house?
Casey, because she was familiar and comfortable at her grandma's house and she was very excited to be getting a puppy so there was emotional engagement in the visit.
How is categorization related to information processing?
Recognizing categories is a way of organizing information that allows for
more efficient storage and retrieval of information in memory.
Infants naturally categorize or organize information, just as older children and adults do.
Grace drops her cup of milk on the floor and looks at her mother while saying, "MILK!" What is Grace expressing in terms of her language ability?
Grace is using a holophrase that actually means, "Mom, I spilled my milk on the floor!"
Cassie is an infant who has a mother that is very sensitive to her needs and responds to her every time she cries. Cassie grows into a toddler that loves to explore her environment and is very independent. What would Erikson say that Cassie developed in her first year of life to behave like she does as a toddler?
Which of the following is the developmental task for toddlers?
Toddlers need to learn to do things for themselves and feel confident in
their ability to maneuver themselves in their environment.
Kenzie is an infant that sucks her thumb when she is anxious. She also chews on toys when she sees other children fighting. As she gets a little older, she will go to her room when her brothers start fighting. Why does Kenzie do all of these behaviors?
Kenzie is engaging in emotional regulation.
Justin is an infant that is able to use distraction and seeking help when he is frustrated. What can we predict about his mother's parenting strategies?
His mother provides more guidance in helping him regulate his emotions.
What concept is defined as a characteristic, predictable style that is influenced by inborn tendencies toward arousal and stimulation, and experiences with adults and contexts?
A lasting emotional tie between two people who each strive to maintain closeness to the other and act to ensure that the relationship continues is called:
Carter is an infant taking part in the Strange Situation. He was wary of the stranger when she entered the room. When his mother left, he cried and the stranger tried to comfort him unsuccessfully. When his mother came back into the room, he smiled at her and reached to her. His mother picked him up and he stopped crying and soon was able to sit on the floor and play with the toys. What attachment type is Carter's behavior consistent with?
What is the most important determinant of infant attachment?
The caregiver's ability to consistently and sensitively respond to the child's
Annabelle looks in the mirror, sees that the reflection in the mirror has a mark on her nose, and touches her own nose. What can we conclude?
Annabelle has self-recognition.
Jack's mother made some cookies. Jack asks if he can have one. His mother tells him that he needs to wait until after lunch. Jack isn't happy about it, but he complies with his mother and waits to eat his cookie until he is done with lunch. Based on what we know about delay of gratification and age, how old does Jack need to be?
At least 18-36 months of age
Brandon just turned 3. His parents want to know how much weight Brandon should gain in the next few years. Brandon's pediatrician will explain that between the ages of 2 and 6, the average child gains nearly ____ pounds in weight each year.
Ajee, who was adopted from Kenya at the age of 6, experienced chronic malnutrition from birth until the time of her adoption. Ajee is at-risk for:
Improvements in fine motor skills help children to become more independent and self-sufficient.
_________ and ___________ are examples of gross motor skills.
Many fine motor skills are difficult for young children because:
they involve both hands and both sides of the brain.
Research on brain development indicates that most people experience:
Which of the following accurately describes what happens to unused synapses in the brain?
Unused synapses are pruned and neurons are reserved for future use.
When 3-year-old Aaron takes his sister's doll away, she begins to cry. After being scolded by his father, Aaron insists that he didn't do anything to make his sister cry. Aaron's inability to understand why his sister is upset is an example of _____.
When 4-year-old Savannah's grandmother puts a pair of pants on a doll, Savannah shouts, "Baby needs a dress! Pants are for boys!" Savannah's comment is an example of ________.
While vacuuming the playroom, Jackson's mother set his train track on a table. Seeing that the track had been moved, Jackson became upset and complained that his track was ruined. After Jackson's mother returned the track to the floor, Jackson continued to fuss, arguing that his trains would no longer work on the track. Jackson's inability to understand that moving the track from the table to the floor restored it to the original state is an example of _______.
When presented with conservation tasks, young children center on the ______ of an object without realizing that the process can be reversed.
Between the ages of 4 and 5, children's drawings reflect the convergence of:
fine motor skills and cognitive development.
While working on a puzzle with his 3-year-old daughter, Jon demonstrates how to put the outside pieces of the puzzle together first, followed by matching up the puzzle shapes and colors. After his daughter observes for a bit, she begins to pick up pieces and tries to match them together. When she appears confused or looks to her father, Jon points to where the piece should go. Jon's modeling and support illustrate Vygotsky's concept of ________.
Following winter break, Ms. Young asks her preschool class what they did over the holidays. Ms. Young is assessing her students':
When asked about her bedtime routine, 4-year-old Zoe says, "I put on my jammies, we brush teeth, and then read a book." Zoe's description is an example of ______.
Parents who use a(n) _______ conversational style have 3-year-olds who engage in longer conversations about events, remember more details, and tend to remember the events better at age 5.
One reason that young children have difficulty with false belief tasks is that they:
confuse their present knowledge with memories for prior knowledge.
While observing her grandfather resting quietly in the recliner, 4-year-old Jordan assumes that he is not thinking because:
there are no visible indicators of thought.
Often, children fast map words for ____ more easily than words for _____.
From which of the following activities will 3-year-old Claire learn words most quickly?
Talking with her parents
Marla stops outside her 5-year-old son's room where he is playing alone with Legos. She hears him saying, "The green one goes here. I need a blue one to go here. My tower is finished!" Marla's son is demonstrating:
According to the cognitive-developmental perspective, young children's reasoning about moral problems change with development as they construct concepts about justice and fairness from their interactions in the world.
In order to learn by modeling, children must:
pay attention to the events that are modeled.
Academically oriented preschool programs that emphasize academics over self-directed exploration:
negatively influence motivation and learning.
Research on Head Start shows that the program:
improves children's cognitive performance.
Kevin's parents have set the rule that he must clean up his toys every night as part of his bedtime routine. One night, he fell asleep before he cleaned up. He woke up crying after he realized that he didn't put his toys away before bedtime. What stage is Kevin illustrating?
Initiative versus guilt
Rick is a boy who collects toy cars. His mother donated some of his cars to his preschool. When Rick is introduced to a new child at his preschool, he immediately tells the child which cars are "his" at school (the ones donated from his mom) and talks about his collection of cars at home. What does this describe?
Maddie really wants to paint at the easel. She walks up to Jeffrey who is painting and takes his paint brush. What type of aggression is Maddie engaging in?
Andrew's parents are very strict. They expect Andrew to obey them, and he is not allowed to question what they say or he is punished. His parents yell at him often and when he disobeys they spank him. What type of parenting style describes Andrew's parents?
Jon's parents are warm and sensitive. They hug him and praise him every day. His parents also are strict in rule setting. When Jon got his first bicycle, they sat down with him and talked about safety and the rules associated with bike riding. They asked Jon what he thought would be a fair distance to ride away from the house and together came up with a route he could take. What type of parenting style describes Jon's parents?
Which parenting style results in a child displaying confidence, cooperation, self-esteem, social skills, and high academic achievement?
Authoritative parenting style.
Michelle is a parent of a 2-year-old boy. At dinnertime, she always gives him choices such as "would you like broccoli or carrots." She tries to help him become aware of the consequences of his actions. When he pulls his cat's tail, she always talks to him about gentle touches and how pulling the cat's tail hurts and will make the cat run away from him. What type of discipline does Michelle use?
Which of the following is an example of gender typing?
Jessica says that girls are smart and boys are stupid.
Which of the following is an example of a gender stereotype?
Danny tells his mom that she can't lift the box because she is weak, but his dad can because he is strong.
Amanda is sitting next to Ben in the block area. They are both building their own tower. They are not talking to one another and they are not sharing blocks. Amanda and Ben are engaging in:
All of Annabelle's teachers comment on what nice penmanship she has. She also loves to braid friendship bracelets and play the flute. Annabelle is demonstrating skill in which area of motor development?
Fine motor skills
What is the most pressing and preventable health problem facing children today?
Mrs. Miller told her third-grade class to line up from shortest to tallest. They were able to get in line very quickly. Why were they able to accomplish this task so fast?
Because they have the classification ability of seriation.
Which of the following is not a change that occurs in a child's ability to process information during middle childhood?
School-age children have a reduced need to use strategies to retain information.
In science class, Kenzie is taught the acronym ROYGBIV to remember the colors of the rainbow (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). What is this called?
Carter is studying for his biology exam. He is trying to remember the process of photosynthesis. He creates a story about a flower growing in a field that illustrates photosynthesis. What memory strategy is he using?
What is the difference between intelligence tests (IQ) and achievement tests?
IQ tests measure intellectual aptitude, whereas achievement tests measure what one has already learned about a given topic.
Critics of IQ testing believe that IQ tests are culturally biased.
Lauren is considered to be very sensitive to other people's moods. She works well with others and enjoys discussing controversial topics. She is a salesperson and makes a lot of money in commission because of her ability to interact with others. Which intelligence is Lauren high in?
Monica attends a private boarding school with a strict dress code and many rules for acceptable behavior. When asked why she won't wear clothes that are against dress code, she says that the principal made the rules for a reason and that it is up to him to change them; she doesn't have the right to change the dress code just because she doesn't like it. Which stage of moral reasoning is Monica most likely in?
Stage 4—conventional moral reasoning
Children judge conventional rules created by their peers as more legitimate than those created by adults.
Why are children in middle childhood better able to change their speech in response to the needs of listeners?
Age and advances in perspective-taking skill.
Will uses curse words when he is hanging out with his friends, but he would never use a curse word in front of his grandma or his teacher. Will understands:
Chen moved to the United States from China. She does not speak English well, but the principal of the school believes that children who have a different first language learn best by being in a classroom with English-speaking students. He thinks that Chen will learn English faster if she learns English and course content at the same time. What approach is Chen's school using?
children with special needs are educated in the general classroom with their peers for all or part of the day.
Which part of the brain is responsible for balance, coordination, and some aspects of emotion and reasoning?
What percentage of children in the US under the age of 18 are diagnosed with chronic medical conditions that require special health services?
Which stage in Piaget's cognitive-developmental perspective involves children gaining the capacity to use logic to solve problems but still are unable to apply logic to abstract and hypothetical situations?
Concrete operational stage of reasoning
The central executive is responsible for all of the following except:
retrieving information from short-term memory (it helps you multi-task, have selective attention, and switch quickly between tasks)
Which of the following is not an illustration of the connection between intelligence scores and education?
IQ increases correspond to increases in GPA
Which view of intelligence states that intelligence is a set of mental abilities that permit individuals to adapt to any context and to select and modify the contexts in which they live and behave?
Triarchic theory of intelligence
How to divide good fairly is known as:
How old are children when they become capable of recognizing irony?
5 to 6
Which English language learning approach has been found to bring a loss in native language?
In the US and Canada, legislation mandates that children with learning disabilities:
are to be placed in the least restrictive environment (classrooms most similar to that of children without disabilities).
At which point in puberty do hormones impact an adolescent's feelings of depression, irritability, and aggression?
Early in puberty
Daniel's mother just bought him new shoes for his 13th birthday. Three weeks later they are too small. She bought him another pair and two months later those shoes were too small. What is happening?
Daniel has begun going through the adolescent growth spurt.
Why is risky activity thought to decline in late adolescence?
Because adolescents are better at self-control, long-term planning, and inhibition of impulsive behavior.
Natalie is a good student and likes to participate in class. When she was in third grade, she had a hard time not blurting out answers. She wanted to answer every question. Now that she is in 10th grade, she is better at controlling her behavior and only raises her hand once or twice each class. What cognitive advance has Natalie experienced?
An advance in response inhibition.
David is very stressed over college applications. He thinks that if he doesn't get into the University of Wisconsin his life is over. When his parents try to talk to him about other options in the event that he doesn't get accepted, he yells at them and tells them that they just don't understand. What aspect of adolescent thinking is David experiencing?
The personal fable
Which statement describes postconventional moral reasoning?
Postconventional moral reasoning entails autonomous decision making from moral principles that value respect for individual rights above all else.
Jenna is very careful not to hurt another person's feelings. She earned a spot as the team captain for her tennis team, but she knew that her teammate really wanted to be captain so she asked her coach to give it to the other player. Jenna's brother said she should not have done that because she earned it. What moral orientation is her brother's response motivated by?
A justice orientation
Anne's parents talk to her about decisions in the family. They keep track of her homework and they have a set time to do schoolwork each day. Anne's parents provide her with additional support when she needs it, such as enrolling her in a special reading program when Anne was having difficulty. Anne's parents volunteer in the school when they can. What parenting style does Anne's parents exhibit?
The _____ is characterized by traits that adolescents value.
In order to establish a sense of identity, 16-year-old Max must:
consider both his past and his future.
Nineteen-year-old Angelo spent most of his adolescence exploring his values, possible career options, and political beliefs. Angelo has high self-esteem, strong moral values, and favorable views toward college and work. Angelo
demonstrates characteristics of identity _____.
Identity achievement is characterized by _____ and _____.
______, in which parents are aware of their adolescents' whereabouts and companions, is associated with academic achievement, overall well-being, reduced sexual activity, and deters delinquent activity and substance use in youth of all ethnicities.
According to research on characteristics of adolescent friendships, which of the following teenagers are most likely to be friends?
Nate and Parker, who are both high-achieving students in the tenth grade
Valencia is an American teenager. Like most teenagers, Valencia will feel the greatest pressure from peers to conform to:
personal choices, such as choice of clothing and music.
_______ encompasses feelings about oneself, appraisals of the self, and attitudes and behaviors.
The final stage of sexual identity development—acceptance and disclosure— often occurs in:
Mr. Horowitz is a high school social worker. Because he sees so many depressed teenagers, he has concluded that depression is just a normal aspect of adolescence. Is Mr. Horowitz correct?
No. Adults who buy into the stereotype that depression is normative in adolescence often ignore real problems.
Karen is concerned about losing muscle strength. She speaks to a sports medicine physician to find out what she should do. What will the doctor recommend?
Karen should exercise and start a training program in the same way an athlete does.
Ben's grandfather died at the age of 85. Ben's father died at the age of 84. Based on the programmed genetics theory of aging, what can Ben predict about his aging future?
Ben will probably live to be somewhere around 84 or 85.
The factor associated with the greatest benefit for stress management is:
social support within the context of a relationship characterized by a secure attachment.
What type of thinking does this question illustrate: "When approaching a problem, there are probably several ways to do it. What are they? Which one's most efficient? Which one will give us the most accurate results?"
Which statement illustrates pragmatic thought?
Annie works at a job where she is an assistant to a clothing designer. She is told what to do and is not allowed to make any decisions on her own. At home, she has freedom to come and go and makes all the decisions.
Why do nontraditional students have strengths that traditional students may not?
They tend to show a readiness to learn and a problem-centered orientation toward learning.
Ashley is very good at solving problems. She likes working with objects— taking them apart and putting them back together. She once disassembled an engine and put it back together. What personality type is Ashley?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of individuals in emerging adulthood?
Becoming a parent
What is the relationship between identity and intimacy?
People must reshape their identity to include their role as partner in a relationship.
Karlie was planning out her future. She told her mother that she is going to graduate high school at age 18, go to college and graduate at age 22, and go to medical school and become a doctor at the age of 27 or 28. She is going to get married right after she completes her residency and have her first baby at age 30. Karlie is describing:
the social clock.
Rachel, a 22-year-old woman, just moved to a new town. She is from a middle-class family and doesn't have any siblings. She is introduced to several people at a neighborhood party. Which of the following individuals will most likely become a friend of Rachel?
Michelle, a 22-year-old woman who is middle-class, new to the town too, and lives in the apartment above Rachel.
Which of the following is an outcome of intimate partner violence for children who are raised in homes of pervasive violence?
The children are more likely to be victims of physical abuse themselves.
What quality is necessary in a marriage for marital harmony and increased marital satisfaction, especially in Western countries?
Egalitarian relationships in which home and family duties are shared.
Which statement accurately illustrates the feelings of new parents?
Many new parents report not feeling prepared for the roller coaster of emotions ranging from joy to frustration and reduced feelings of well-being that accompany parenthood.
Marilyn is an African American woman who is working for a large accounting firm. She is in line to become the next president of the firm. In order to prepare for the potential promotion, what is Marilyn most likely going to search for in terms of career support?
An African American woman mentor
Why are men more susceptible to presbycusis?
Because they tend to be exposed to intense noise, loud work environments, and illnesses later in adulthood.
Donna is concerned about aging muscle. What will her doctor recommend to help prevent loss of muscle?
He will suggest that she see a nutritionist and develop an exercise routine.
Which of the following women is most susceptible to early menopause?
Jean, who smokes, doesn't have children, and lives in poverty.
When are men and women typically diagnosed with osteoporosis?
After they have experienced a bone fracture
Richard gets angry very easily. He thinks about confrontations he has with coworkers all the time and will vent to anyone who will listen. He puts a lot of pressure on himself and his children. If they don't do what he asks, he yells at them and becomes very upset to the degree that he gets short of breath. What would Richard most likely be diagnosed with?
High blood pressure
Terry feels out of control, reacts to stressful situations with anger and frustration, and becomes silent when he is stressed and won't talk about what is bothering him. Based on what we know about wellness, what would Terry score low in?
Brian is very good at problem solving and being able to see both sides of an issue. Which type of intelligence does Brian exhibit?
Which of the following accurately describes age-related change in cognitive capacity?
Crystallized intelligence increases steadily over the adult years and declines modestly in late adulthood.
Karen has put everything into her career. She travels for work and always says yes when they ask her to take on a new project. She is now reconsidering some decisions and has decided to look for a significant other that she can share her life with and start a family. What "season of life" is she in?
The age 30 transition.
How do researchers know that the midlife crisis is not universal?
Most adults of all ages tend to view middle adulthood as a positive time in life with increasing life satisfaction, self-esteem, and well-being.
Older middle-aged adults are typically more autonomous, less concerned with the evaluations and expectations of others, and more concerned with living up to self-chosen ideals and standards.
Which of the following Big 5 personality traits does not decrease in middle adulthood?
What characterizes friendships in middle adulthood?
Individuals have fewer friends, but they are almost always described as close.
What trend is not consistent with the findings on marriage in middle adulthood?
Wives tend to be more satisfied with marriage throughout life than are husbands.
Why do parents experience a decline in well-being when their children experience some type of failure in adulthood?
The parents are likely to feel a sense of failure on their own part because they were not able to help them.
Who is most likely going to financially plan for retirement?
Adults with more positive beliefs about their ability to control aspects of aging.