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Ch. 27 (lecture)
Terms in this set (58)
Function of the reproductive system
To continue the species
The reproductive system is intimate with what other system?
The endocrine system
Primary sex organs
Testes in males ovary's in females
Accessory reproductive organs
Ducts, glands and external genitalia
Path of sperm
seminiferous tubules, epididymis, ductus defernes, the ejaculatory duct and then the urethra
Is a sac of skin covering the testes
Part of the scrotum, a layer of smooth muscle
Skeletal muscle part of the testes, help move the testes closer to the body
Outpocketing of the periotenum, on the outside of the testes
Deep to the tunica vaginalis
Where sperm production takes place, the sperm factories
How many sperm are produced a day?
400 million per day
How many days for completely viable sperm?
Supply's blood to the testes
Pampiniform venous plexus
Helps cool the blood before it enters the testes
Skin covering the glans penis
The males urethra is made of what 3 portions?
Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and spongy urethra
surrounds urethra and expands to form glans and bulb
paired dorsal erectile bodies
What is responsible for a erection?
The parasympathetic nervous system
What is responsible for ejaculation?
The sympathetic nervous system
erectile tissue fills with blood, causing penis to enlarge and become rigid
contains efferent ductules; superior aspect of testis; body and tail on posterolateral area of testis
Duct of the epididymis ~ 6 m in length
Microvilli (stereocilia) absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm
Nonmotile sperm enter, pass slowly through (~ 20 days), become motile; can be stored several months
During ejaculation epididymis contracts, expelling sperm into ductus deferens
(vas deferens) ~ 45 cm
Passes through inguinal canal to pelvic cavity
Expands to form ampulla; joins duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct
Smooth muscle in walls propels sperm from epididymis to urethra
What are the male accessory organs?
Seminal gland, prostate gland and bulbo- urethral gland (cowpers glands)
On posterior bladder surface; smooth muscle contracts during ejaculation
Produces viscous alkaline seminal fluid(!!!)
Fructose, citric acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins
Yellow pigment fluoresces with UV light
70% volume of semen
Duct of seminal gland joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
Encircles urethra inferior to bladder; size of peach pit; smooth muscle contracts during ejaculation
Secretes milky, slightly acid fluid(!!!!)
Contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Role in sperm activation
Enters prostatic urethra during ejaculation
1/3 semen volume
Bulbo- urethral gland
Produce a thick clear mucous used for lubrication
Milky-white mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions(!!!)
2-5 ml semen ejaculated, contains 20-150 million sperm/ml
Contains fructose for ATP production; protects and activates sperm; facilitates sperm movement
Alkaline neutralizes acidity of male urethra and female vagina enhanced motility
Whats another name for sperm?
Sequence of events in the seminiferous tubules that produces sperm (64-72 days)
Have 46 chromosomes
Have 23 chromosomes
A nuclear division that only happens in the gonads of both sexes
Two consecutive cell divisions (meiosis I and II); only one round of DNA replication
Produces four daughter cells
Functions of meiosis
Number of chromosomes halved (from 2n to n)
Introduces genetic diversity
Crossing over takes place where?
In meiosis 1
Spermatids become sperm (24 days), Spermatids elongate; lose excess cytoplasm; form a tail spermatozoon (sperm)
Sperm stem cells, diploid cells
Testosterone is produced by what?
The ovary's release what 2 hormones?
Estrogen and progesterone
What are the 3 layers of the uterus?
Endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium
Anchors the ovary to the uterus
anchors ovary laterally to pelvic wall
supports uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by
Follicle cells (one cell layer thick)
Granulosa cells (more than one layer present
Vesicular (antral or tertiary) follicle
fully mature follicle
Fluid-filled antrum forms; follicle bulges from ovary surface
Accessory ducts of females
Receive ovulated oocyte; usual site of fertilization
Isthmus - constricted region where tube joins uterus
Distal expansion with infundibulum near ovary
Ciliated fimbriae of infundibulum create currents to move oocyte into uterine tube
What are the 2 layers of the endometrium?
Stratum functionalis and stratum basalis
Changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles
Shed during menstruation
Forms new functionalis after menstruation
Unresponsive to ovarian hormones
Production of female gametes
Takes years to complete
At birth female presumed to have lifetime supply of primary oocytes
Each month after puberty, a few primary oocytes activated
One "selected" each month to resume meiosis
Monthly series of events associated with maturation of egg
Two consecutive phases (in 28-day cycle)
Follicular phase - period of follicle growth (days 1-14)
Ovulation occurs midcycle
Luteal phase - period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)
3 to 5 days, sheding of the endometrium and follicle begin developin
9 to 10 days, endometrium repairs and follicles continue to develop (primordial follicle to primary follicle and primary follicle becomes secondary follicle) and secrete estrogen
On day 14 lasts for 1 day, release of the egg from the follicle, the uterus (endometrium) is completely repaired
10 to 12 days, Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen, endometrium is thick, If no pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates into corpus albicans (scar) in 10 days, premenstrual phase
Mammary glands are?
They are modified sweat glands
The surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers?
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