74 terms

PLT Praxis: Practice Test: FORM 2

STUDY
PLAY
Second-grade teachers meet to review the results of a benchmark reading assessment. After reviewing the data, they discuss strategies they can use to support struggling readers. The teachers agree to meet the following month to discuss how the struggling readers are progressing. The professional development practice the teachers are using is

A.participating in a professional learning community
B.completing independent research
C.holding a study group
D.conducting action research
Option (A) is correct.

A common feature of professional learning communities is using student assessment results to develop strategies for responding to the information revealed in the data.
Before students read a chapter from the class novel, the teacher asks them to record a prediction in their reading journals about what they think is going to happen. After they finish reading the chapter, the teacher asks them to comment on the predictions they made before reading. The act of making and thinking about predictions is primarily an example of

A.reflection
B.metacognition
C.adding meaning
D.transfer of knowledge
Option (B) is correct.

Metacognition is the awareness and understanding of one's thinking and cognitive processes. An aspect of metacognition is prediction because it requires students to use prior knowledge or evidence to anticipate what might happen at a later time or as a result of an action or situation.
Which of the following is the most important question for a teacher to consider when reading the results of a study on an instructional intervention?

A.Does the intervention meet a need of my students?
B.What other schools are using the intervention?
C.How large was the sample the researchers studied?
D.Have the results of the study been repeated in other studies?
Option (A) is correct.

Instructional interventions are used to address identified student needs. Therefore, no matter how large a study is or how well it has been validated, the most important question for the teacher to answer is if the intervention is appropriate for his or her students.
Which of the following is the defining characteristic of a criterion-referenced test?

A.It compares students' performance with the performance of peers.
B.It identifies innate talents and aptitudes.
C.It provides factual data about an observed event or behavior.
D.It measures student performance against specific learning standards
Option (D) is correct.

Criterion-referenced tests are designed to measure how well a student has achieved a learning goal, standard, or objective.
According to Piaget's theories of cognitive development, which of the following is the structure that children use to continually adapt to and organize concepts?

A.Metacognition
B.Equilibrium
C.Schema
D.Zone of proximal development
Option (C) is correct.

Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior. Schemata enable people to form a mental representation of the world by organizing and adapting units of knowledge.
Which of the following variables exerts the most influence on a student's academic achievement?

A.Parents' employment status
B.Student's culture
C.Number of siblings in the household
D.Parents' level of education
Option (D) is correct.

A large body of research has shown a link between parental education levels and child outcomes such as educational experience, attainment, and academic achievement.
After two students refuse to help their table mates clean up the learning center, the teacher gives tokens for good behavior to those students who helped clean up. Which of the following is the teacher using to deal with the two unhelpful students?

A.Positive reinforcement
B.Negative reinforcement
C.Negative punishment
D.Positive punishment
Option (C) is correct.

Negative punishment is the removal of a desired stimulus, in this case, tokens, after an undesired behavior is exhibited. The hoped for result is a reduction of the undesired behavior in the future.
The primary advantage of testing student knowledge with an essay test rather than a selected-response test is that an essay test

A.is easier and faster to score
B.provides more reliable scores
C.requires more critical thinking
D.tests more content
Option (C) is correct.

Essay questions are more efficient than selected-response questions at measuring higher-order cognitive objectives such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
Which of the following is the most important reason for the efficient use of physical space in a classroom?

A.Creating a quiet learning environment
B.Providing sufficient space to organize classroom materials
C.Providing student access to the teacher
D.Creating safe movement through the room
Option (D) is correct.

Student safety is the most important factor in determining the physical layout of a classroom.
Which of the following scores is best for determining how a student has performed on a test when compared to a peer group taking the same test?

A.Raw score
B.Percentile rank
C.Stanine
D.Grade-equivalent score
Option (B) is correct.

A percentile rank indicates what percent of the students in the norm group received the same or lower score than a particular student.
Ms. Bhodi is a first-year teacher who has difficulty reflecting on her practice. Which of the following actions will be most helpful for strengthening her reflection skills?

A.Observing lessons taught by experienced colleagues
B.Viewing and analyzing videos of her own lessons
C.Discussing her teaching techniques with a mentor
D.Making detailed notes in her lesson plans
Option (B) is correct.

Reflection is an introspective, critical analysis of a process, situation, or event for the purpose of gaining knowledge, developing perspective, and identifying strategies to apply in the future. Watching videos of her own teaching is Ms. Bhodi's best method for cultivating the self-awareness needed for effective reflection.
A teacher is disciplining a fourth grader for misbehavior in the lunchroom. As the student describes the incident, the teacher continually contradicts the student's account. The student becomes increasingly agitated, resulting in disrespectful behavior and further discipline. Which of the following changes in the teacher's communication is most likely to improve the outcome of the discipline?

A.Using body language to convey interest
B.Repeating what the student says to confirm understanding
C.Maintaining eye contact to encourage the student to continue
D.Mirroring the student's facial expressions to show agreement
Option (B) is correct. Repeating or paraphrasing what the student says demonstrates understanding. The teacher may disagree with the student's account, but as an effective listener, the teacher should acknowledge that he or she is receiving a true representation of what the student means to say.
Which TWO of the following are distinguishing characteristics of interdisciplinary instruction?

A.Uses multiple instructional resources
B.Combines knowledge and skills associated with two or more content areas
C.Uses teams of teachers to plan lessons, deliver instruction, and create assessments
D.Differentiates instruction to meet the needs of a variety of learners
Options (B) and (C) are correct.

Interdisciplinary instruction synthesizes more than one discipline and relies on teams of teachers to enrich students' learning experience.
During back-to-school night, a teacher shares strategies parents can use to support students' understanding and application of skills taught in class. The teacher is involving parents by sharing information about

A.valuing education
B.establishing home/school partnerships
C.reinforcing learning
D.building students' study skills
Option (C) is correct.

Informing parents about ways to assist their children with schoolwork helps strengthen the learning that takes place in the classroom.
Before third graders read a text on tornadoes, their teacher distributes K-W-L charts and asks them to fill in the "K" column. The purpose of having students complete the "K" column is to prompt them to

A.identify the text structure
B.monitor their level of comprehension
C.respond to the text
D.activate their prior knowledge
Option (D) is correct.

A K-W-L chart is a graphic organizer used to increase students' comprehension of text. The "K" column asks students to record information they already know about the subject of the text, thus activating their prior knowledge.
Which of the following is the median for the following set of scores: 85, 90, 87, 100, and 95?

A.85
B.87
C.90
D.95
Option (C) is correct.

The median is the middle number in a sorted list of numbers. When sequenced by value, the scores are
85, 87, 90, 95, and 100; therefore, the median (middle number) in the sequence is 90.
Which of the following is a teacher's best course of action when a sixth-grade student answers a question incorrectly?

A.Telling the student the response is incorrect and then providing the correct answer
B.Changing the question and allowing another student to respond to the new question
C.Restating the question so that another student can correct the student's wrong answer
D.Asking the student a probing question to understand the student's reason for the response
Option (D) is correct.

Probing questions often help students realize and correct their mistakes and also help the teacher to identify students' misconceptions.
A fourth-grade teacher wants to evaluate students' analyses of plot structure in a chapter book the class has just read. Which of the following assessments is the teacher's best choice?

A.Observation checklist
B.Student portfolio
C.Selected-response test
D.Extended constructed response
Option (D) is correct.

Extended constructed response is an assessment method that provides opportunities for students to develop arguments, evaluate ideas, demonstrate creativity, or apply their learning to real-world situations. It is the teacher's best choice for evaluating students' analytical abilities.
For each row, identify whether the statement about the assessment is true or false.

1. An essay is an appropriate method for evaluating how students apply spelling rules.

2. Peer assessment shows teachers how students perform when compared to their classmates.

3. A selected-response assessment is effective for evaluating knowledge of factual content.
1. The first statement is true.
An essay demonstrates how students apply spelling rules within a real-world context.

2. The second statement is false.
Peer assessment is the process of evaluating the work of a peer based on set criteria. It does not provide information on how students compare to one another.

3. The third statement is true.
A selected-response assessment is an appropriate way to determine if students know factual content. Because selected-response questions are quick to respond to and score, a large number of questions covering multiple learning points can be included.
Which of the following best describes the scope and sequence of a curriculum guide?

A.The specific concepts, skills, and knowledge that the curriculum will introduce to students
B.The strategies and activities a teacher will use to achieve curriculum goals
C.The content of the curriculum and the order in which it will be presented
D.The process of measuring how well students achieved curriculum goals
Option (C) is correct.

The scope is the depth and breadth of the content to be covered, and the sequence is the specific order the units within the curriculum are to be taught.
Which of the following is the most appropriate use of an analytical checklist for assessment in the classroom?

A.Observing student behavioral changes day to day
B.Monitoring student success at completing a multistep project
C.Noting student responses during a running record
D.Evaluating student understanding of a complex idea
Option (B) is correct.

An analytical checklist allows a teacher to assess how students perform on a variety of facets or at different steps of an assignment.
A fourth-grade teacher is preparing a lesson on reading historical maps. Which of the following questions requires students to use higher-level thinking?

A.What time period does this map cover?
B.How far is the river from the coastline?
C.Which symbol in the key indicates a railroad?
D.Why did people build the cities where they did?
Option (D) is correct.

The question on building cities requires students to hypothesize based on prior knowledge. According to Bloom's taxonomy, hypothesizing is a form of evaluation, which requires higher-level thinking.
A fourth-grade teacher places students in small groups. Each group receives a soil sample from a geographic region of the United States. The teacher instructs students to examine the sample and note its characteristics. Students then study various geographic regions, including each region's vegetation, animal life, minerals, and natural resources. The teacher challenges students to use the information they have found about the sample and each region to hypothesize the sample's origin. The activity is an example of which of the following instructional models?

A.Direct
B.Indirect
C.Independent
D.Experiential
Option (B) is correct.

Indirect instruction is a student-centered instructional model that is based on a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses.
A first-grade teacher observes that Darren has difficulty acquiring new skills, struggles to communicate his needs, and requires assistance putting on his coat and going through the cafeteria line. The teacher plans to refer Darren for evaluation for special education services to address a possible

A.visual impairment
B.behavioral disorder
C.intellectual disability
D.gross-motor delay
Option (C) is correct.

The behavior Darren displays is suggestive of intellectual disability. Children with intellectual disability learn new skills at a rate slower than others, often have difficulty communicating their specific needs, and struggle with aspects of self-care.
A curriculum director asks the sixth-grade teaching team to evaluate new mathematics textbooks for possible purchase. When the team reviews the textbooks, it is most important for team members to consider the

A.supplemental resources that support the textbook
B.vertical alignment of the curricular content
C.availability of the textbook in other formats
D.scores of sixth graders on the annual state assessment
Option (B) is correct.

Vertical curriculum alignment ensures that the content students learn in one lesson, course, or grade level prepares them for the next lesson, course, or grade level. Instruction will be inconsistent if the content of the textbook does not align with the content taught in previous and coming grade levels.
For which of the following assignments is a rubric the most appropriate method of assessment?

A.A fifth grader's presentation on a science experiment
B.A third grader's free-writing journal entry
C.A kindergartner's independent work on word families
D.A sixth grader's homework on fractions
Correct
Option (A) is correct.

Rubrics are most appropriate for evaluating students' performance in situations that closely replicate real life, such as presenting the results of a science experiment.
A fourth-grade class contains several students who are reading below grade level. Which of the following is the best activity for improving their reading fluency and comprehension?

A.Memorizing new vocabulary
B.Completing questions about the text they read
C.Participating in readers' theater
D.Reading books written above their instructional level
Option (C) is correct.

In readers' theater, students perform by reading scripts created from grade-level books or stories. It is highly effective for improving fluency and enhancing comprehension.
Which of the following assessments is most likely to be criterion referenced?

A.A chapter test from a textbook
B.A college entrance exam
C.An audition
D.An intelligence test
Option (A) is correct.

A criterion-referenced assessment measures how well students perform against a fixed set of learning standards and returns scores as the number of correct responses rather than a ranking against peers. A test at the end of textbook chapter generally measures how much of the content presented in the chapter the students learned.
A teacher reviewing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) notes that one student has been diagnosed with dysgraphia. The teacher can anticipate that the student will need additional support when

A.listening
B.viewing
C.reading
D.writing
Option (D) is correct.

Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that influences how children acquire written language and how well they use written language to express thoughts. The teacher can anticipate that the student's IEP will contain adaptations to support writing.
A teacher reviews the records of a second grader transferring from another school. The records show that the student received a stanine score of 5 in mathematics on the most recent standardized test. Which of the following does the score indicate about the student's performance on the test?

A.The student performed on a second-grade level.
B.The student performed on a fifth-grade level.
C.The student performed better than 95% of first graders.
D.The student answered five questions incorrectly.
Option (A) is correct.

Stanine is an abbreviation for Standard Nine, a method of scoring based on a nine-point scale with a mean score of 5. Since the student received a score of 5, the teacher can reasonably conclude that the student is performing at or near grade level.
Third-grade students are having trouble accepting that negative 2 is greater than negative 5 because their second-grade teacher taught them that the higher the number, the greater the value. The students are struggling to accept this mathematical principle because they are most likely experiencing

A.cognitive dissonance
B.a conflict of interest
C.ambivalence
D.groupthink
Option (A) is correct.

Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress that results from trying to hold two contradictory beliefs at the same time, usually occurring when presented with a new idea that is in conflict with an existing idea. Students are likely struggling with the conflict between what they were taught about positive numbers and what they are now learning about negative numbers.
Which of the following statements is most appropriate for an educator's reflective journal?

A.When I begin a new unit of study, I select resource materials and write outlines for the main topics.
B.I think my conferences with students will be more effective if I spend more time listening and asking questions.
C.I am going to write missed assignments on slips of paper to give to absent students when they return to school.
D.My grade-level leader thinks I have difficulty relating to older staff members.
Option (B) is correct.

Reflection is a process of self-observation intended to help educators consider their actions, the responses of others to their actions, and to use their observations and conclusions to support their continuous professional improvement. The statement in (B) identifies an area of growth (student conferences), proposes corrective action (spending more time listening and asking questions), and anticipates an improved outcome (more effective conferences).
Which of the following is the best assessment for a teacher to use to quantify students' specific strengths and weaknesses in reading?

A.Running record
B.End-of-unit test
C.Class participation
D.Reading journal
Option (A) is correct.

Quantified results are expressed as measurements of number or amount. The running record collects and analyzes information about students' reading abilities, specifically their error and self-correction rates, and expresses the results as number counts.
In Goss v. Lopez, the Supreme Court ruled that students are entitled to a hearing prior to or closely following a school suspension. The Court's ruling upholds students' right to

A.freedom of speech
B.equal access
C.privacy
D.due process
Option (D) is correct.

Due process provides an individual with the right to a fair and unbiased hearing when accused of violating a law or, in the case of Goss v. Lopez, a school rule. The Court's decision affirmed that students have the right to due process and that due process procedures apply to disciplinary processes within schools.
Madeline scored in the 77th percentile in mathematics on a standardized assessment. Which of the following is the best way to explain her score to her parents?

A.She scored equal to or better than 77 percent of other students in her peer group.
B.She answered 77 items correctly out of a possible 100.
C.She received the 77th highest score in a set of 100 peers.
D.The average score of students in her peer group is 77 percent correct.
Option (A) is correct.

A percentile score represents how a student's score compares to the scores of others in a particular comparison group. Madeline's score in the 77th percentile indicates that she scored equal to or better than 77 percent of peers who took the assessment.
Which of the following is the most effective action a teacher can take to nurture students' self-esteem?

A.Selecting learning tasks that are easily achievable
B.Giving specific and genuine praise
C.Building students' intrinsic motivation
D.Planning competitive activities
Option (B) is correct.

Self-esteem is confidence in one's own value and abilities. Specific and genuine praise builds self-esteem by pointing out students' positive qualities or actions and helping them acknowledge the resulting confidence-building feelings.
A technology education teacher demonstrates the safe use of a sanding machine as students watch. Which of the following concepts of social learning theory is the teacher using?

A.Reciprocal determinism
B.Reinforcement
C.Schema
D.Modeling
Option (D) is correct.

Modeling is an instructional strategy in which an individual demonstrates a skill and others learn by observing.
Which of the following statements by a fifth grader best exemplifies attribution?

A."We do lots of experiments in science class."
B."When I finish my homework, I can have computer time."
C."I'm late to class because the hallways were crowded."
D."I'm the best lacrosse player on my team."
Option (C) is correct.

Attribution theory offers an explanation for the process individuals use to explain the cause of their behavior. Attribution generally seeks to assign the discomfort resulting from an individual's behavior to another cause or person. The student is using attribution to explain how the crowded hallways resulted in lateness to class.
A middle school science teacher analyzes student performance on a test on energy resources. The analysis reveals that almost every student incorrectly answered the questions on solar energy. Which of the following is the teacher's best response to the analysis of student test results?

A.Retesting all of the students on the questions on solar energy only
B.Removing the questions on solar energy from the students' test scores
C.Placing the students in ability groups to review the textbook section on solar energy
D.Reteaching the content on solar energy in a different way
Option (D) is correct.

The test analysis suggests that students did not understand the content on solar energy. The best response to students' misunderstanding of content is reteaching using a different method and checking frequently for understanding.
A fourth-grade teacher is seeking information about research-based strategies for improving students' reading comprehension of informational texts. Which of the following is the best professional-development activity for the teacher to pursue?

A.Taking a graduate course in reading
B.Asking for mentoring from the school's reading specialist
C.Consulting an academic journal in the field of reading
D.Observing as a colleague teaches a reading class
Option (C) is correct.

National professional organizations publish academic journals which contain peer-reviewed articles on research in their field. The teacher can consult the journal's index or a periodicals database to identify articles on the particular topic of interest.
Ms. Khan wants to further her teaching career by acquiring new knowledge and skills, qualifying for career advancement, and earning higher pay. She can best achieve her goal by

A.pursuing a postgraduate degree
B.attending continuing education workshops
C.participating in a professional learning community
D.mentoring a colleague
Option (A) is correct.

A postgraduate degree will allow Ms. Khan to deepen her knowledge, qualify for leadership roles in her school, and move upward on the district pay scale.
Which of the following learning theories is a physical education teacher applying by pairing less skilled players with more skilled players for tennis practice?

A.Social development
B.Cognitivism
C.Constructivism
D.Behaviorism
Option (A) is correct.

Vygotsky's theory of social development supports that learning occurs as a result of interacting with more a knowledgeable other (MKO), a person who has a higher level of ability than the learner. By pairing a less skilled player with a more skilled player (MKO), the teacher is promoting the learning of the less skilled player.
Which of the following is a teacher's best strategy for increasing the number of students who participate in class discussions and improving the quality of their responses?

A.Calling on students who rarely participate in discussions
B.Writing discussion questions on the board so students can see them
C.Increasing the wait time between asking a question and selecting a student to answer
D.Sequencing discussion questions from low to high levels of thinking
Option (C) is correct.

Wait time is the period of silence between the time a question is asked and the time when students respond to the question. Research shows that increasing wait time positively affects both the frequency and quality of student responses.
D.Magazine
Articles based on research validated by peers.

B.Review
Reflections and impressions related to teaching

A.Academic journal
Articles and features related to educational topics

C.Blog
Evaluations of resources and equipment used in instruction
The correct selections, from left to right, are academic journal, blog, magazine, and review.

An academic journal is a peer-reviewed periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

A blog is a diary of thoughts published on a Web page, usually by a single individual.

A magazine is a publication containing articles covering a particular subject or area of interest. A review is a form of evaluation in which an item is rated based on content and quality.
The following is a goal statement written by a third-grade student.

I will try harder in math. I will do better on Friday math quizzes. I will raise the grade on my next report card from a C to a B.

A teacher can best improve the goal by recommending that the student

A.make the goal more specific
B.make the goal measurable
C.choose a goal that is achievable
D.add a time frame for reaching the goal
Option (A) is correct.

Well-written goals are specific, measurable, achievable, and time bound. The student's goal contains a measure and a timeline—raising the report card grade to a B by the end of the marking period, and the goal seems achievable for a third-grader. However, the goal lacks specificity. There is no identification of what constitutes trying harder and doing better.
Ms. Blaine wants to introduce students to peer assessment. She plans to begin by asking students to brainstorm criteria for evaluating each other's work. She then plans to give students time to apply the criteria to a partner's work as she provides feedback about how well the students are doing. Finally, she and the students will talk about how they can improve their peer assessment in the future. Which of the following changes will best improve Ms. Blaine's lesson?

A.Determining the criteria for peer assessment herself and presenting it to students
B.Allowing students to independently develop future goals for improvement
C.Adding a step where students practice applying criteria to sample work
D.Withholding feedback about student performance until the end of the lesson
Option (C) is correct.

The outlined plan is most improved by offering students the opportunity to apply the developed criteria to samples of work of varying quality before attempting to evaluate peers' work.
A teacher reviews the Individualized Education Program (IEP) of a new student and notes that the student receives services from an occupational therapist. Based on this provision of the IEP, the teacher can expect that the student

A.has difficulty swallowing
B.struggles with fine-motor skills
C.uses a wheelchair for mobility
D.speaks unintelligibly
Option (B) is correct.

Difficulty using fine-motor skills, mostly evident in handwriting, is the primary reason students are referred for occupational therapy services in schools.
In operant conditioning, the most effective schedule of reinforcement to use when a student is first learning a behavior is

A.variable ratio
B.variable interval
C.continuous
D.fixed interval
Option (C) is correct.

Continuous reinforcement is most effective when used during the initial stages of learning because it creates a strong association between the behavior and the response.
Which of the following laws requires teachers to consult a student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) when planning instructional strategies, activities, resources, and assessments?

A.Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
B.Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
C.Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
D.Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
Option (B) is correct.

Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are documents required by the Individual with Disabilities Education Act. Teachers are expected to consult students' IEPs to determine appropriate instructional strategies, activities, assessments, and resources.
Library media specialists in a school setting are primarily responsible for

A.selecting and organizing the resources teachers use in instruction
B.facilitating collaboration among teachers
C.supporting the development of information and technological literacy
D.teaching students sequential library and study skills
Option (C) is correct.

Library media specialists work with students, teachers, and administrators to promote information and technological literacy in a variety of ways.
At the conclusion of a unit on electing a president, a teacher plans to use a performance assessment to test student understanding of the unit. Which of the following student tasks is the teacher's best choice?

A.Writing and delivering a campaign speech
B.Making a map showing the number of electoral delegates from each state
C.Researching and writing the biography of a US president
D.Participating in a mock election
Option (D) is correct.

A performance assessment is a form of testing that asks students to perform a task that demonstrates an application of knowledge and skills learned during instruction. A task that demonstrates the application of knowledge and skills related to a unit on electing a president is having students participate in a mock election.
Erik Erikson theorized that humans progress through eight stages of development in which of the following domains?

A.Psychosocial
B.Moral
C.Cognitive
D.Physical
Option (A) is correct.

Erikson developed the Stages of Psychosocial Development, which theorizes that typical humans pass through eight stages of psychological development beginning in infancy and concluding in late adulthood.
Which of the following teacher actions best supports an adolescent female student's acceptance of and comfort with being intellectually gifted?

A.Recommending that the student participate in a pull-out program for gifted students
B.Exposing the student to role models through mentorships and internships
C.Having the student act as a teaching assistant when she has mastered the lesson content
D.Suggesting that the student's parents arrange for outside counseling to build her self-esteem
Option (B) is correct.

A large body of research supports the idea that positive female role models are essential for the development of a female student's self-image. Exposing a gifted adolescent girl to worthy role models in the form of mentors who share their personal values, interests, and skills is the best teacher action for nurturing her acceptance of and comfort with her giftedness.
A fifth-grade science teacher is preparing a unit on biodiversity. Which of the following is the best initial action the teacher can take to support the learning of English-language learners in the class?

A.Pairing the English-language learners with English-speaking partners for help with reading and writing assignments
B.Preparing an alternate unit for the English-language learners that has less complex learning objectives
C.Preteaching content-related vocabulary to the English-language learners before each lesson
D.Placing the English-language learners in a group that is taught separately by a paraprofessional
Option (C) is correct.

English-language learners have difficulty in content-area learning because they are unfamiliar with the language of academic subjects. Pre-teaching vocabulary allows English-language learners to identify vocabulary and place it in context when they encounter it in texts or lessons.
When structuring reading groups according to student level of ability, which of the following is the best practice?

A.Making sure that groups are composed of students with a similar level of ability
B.Making sure that each group has a mix of students with low, average, or high levels of ability
C.Basing students' placement on their most recent reading assessment
D.Basing students' placement on the text they have chosen, regardless of its difficulty level
Option (C) is correct.

Students can be grouped in a number of configurations such as same ability, mixed ability, or pairs but their placement should be based on their most recent reading assessment to ensure the placement accurately reflects their current reading level.
A teacher observes that a fifth grader has frequent tantrums that include foot stamping and spitting. The behavior indicates atypical development in which of the following domains?

A.Social
B.Emotional
C.Physical
D.Cognitive
Option (B) is correct.

Emotional development encompasses the expression, understanding, and regulation of emotions. A fifth grader whose emotional development is typical has developed skills for handling frustration in more appropriate ways than throwing tantrums.
For each row, identify whether the statement is an example of self-determination or attribution.

Strategy: Self-Determination / Attribution:

I worked very hard to earn outstanding grades on my report card.

I selected the topic of my research because I enjoy sports.

I made a work plan that allows me to finish my project before the weekend.
Statement 1 is an example of attribution because it explains the cause of the student's outstanding grades.

Statements 2 and 3 are examples of self-determination because they are the result of decisions based on the student's preference and best interest, respectively.
Which of the following group configurations best promotes student participation?

A.Whole class
B.Jigsaw
C.Think-pair-share
D.Flexible
Option (C) is correct.

Think-pair-share is a collaborative learning strategy in which students work together to solve a problem by thinking about a solution individually and then sharing the solution with a partner. Because only two students are involved, there is a high level of participation from each.
A teacher observes that Ryan is distracted and inattentive during lessons but receives the highest scores in the class on tests. To best help Ryan, the teacher should consult which of the following people?

A.Special education teacher
B.Occupational therapist
C.Principal
D.Gifted education teacher
Option (D) is correct.

Ryan's behavior is typical of a student who is gifted. The role of the gifted education teacher is to assist teachers in identifying gifted students and to recommend instructional adaptations.
Which of the following describes the most effective teacher-parent collaboration for supporting student success?

A.The teacher sends e-mails to parents when assignments are missing.
B.The teacher rewards a student for good behavior with a card that says "Number One Helper" to take home to parents.
C.The teacher meets with parents to devise a strategy for helping a student who struggles with spelling.
D.The teacher requires a parent signature on any test that receives a score lower than 75 percent correct.
Option (C) is correct.

Collaboration is a partnership of individuals who are working together to accomplish the same goal. Designing a strategy to help a struggling student involves contributions from both the teacher and the parents working toward a shared goal. As such, it is the best example of collaboration.
At the beginning of the school year, a teacher puts students in small groups to discuss and recommend a list of classroom rules. Which of the following is most likely the purpose of the activity?

A.Increasing student motivation to adhere to the rules
B.Providing the opportunity for students to get to know their classmates
C.Developing students' collaborative and cooperative skills
D.Teaching the role of rules in an orderly society
Option (A) is correct.

An effective method for building student investment in acceptable behavior is having students participate in developing the classroom rules. Students who understand the reasons for the rules and how the rules benefit them are more motivated to follow them.
A teacher prompts students to monitor their comprehension and self-correct as they read aloud. Which of the following skills is the teacher encouraging?

A.Transferring knowledge
B.Building schemata
C.Practicing metacognition
D.Developing self-regulation
Option (C) is correct.

Metacognition is the understanding, control, and manipulation of one's own cognitive processes. Monitoring comprehension of text and self-correcting are elements of metacognition.
A family and consumer science teacher is planning students' first food preparation lab of the year. One of the students in the class has mild dyslexia. In which of the following parts of the lab is the student most likely to need support?

A.Reading the recipe
B.Sharing the preparation responsibilities
C.Gathering the ingredients and equipment
D.Timing the baking
Option (A) is correct.

Individuals with dyslexia have difficulty interpreting words, letters, and other symbols. Because recipes generally contain words, letters, and symbols, a student with dyslexia will likely need additional support to complete this part of the food preparation lab.
The primary benefit of using scoring guides for student assessment is that

A.teachers can easily align student performance with grade-level learning goals
B.teachers have an evaluative standard that promotes consistent scoring
C.students have a step-by-step checklist to follow while completing their work
D.students are prompted to reflect on their work at certain points in the scoring guide
Option (B) is correct.

A scoring guide is an evaluation tool that is used to promote the consistent application of standards to measure student performance against predetermined criteria.
A student who was successful in elementary school experiences academic, behavioral, and social difficulties upon entering middle school. Which of the following school staff members is best equipped to determine the cause of the student's difficulties and recommend actions to address them?

A.Homeroom teacher
B.School counselor
C.Principal
D.School social worker
Option (B) is correct.

The school counselor works with students, parents, teachers, and administrators to create an environment that is caring and conducive to learning. School counselors are trained to recognize and suggest solutions to students' academic, behavioral, and social problems.
Several weeks after completing a unit on butterflies, a teacher asks students to recall information about the life cycle of butterflies. The teacher reminds the students about the bulletin board they created on this topic. Which of the following types of memory is the teacher prompting students to use?

A.Episodic
B.Procedural
C.Emotional
D.Automatic
Option (A) is correct.

Episodic memory uses the ability to learn, store, and retrieve information about personal experiences that occur in daily life, often including details about the time and place of an event. The teacher relies on students' episodic memory to recall the information about butterflies displayed on the bulletin board.
Which of the following pairs of terms best describes the focus of standards-based education?

A.Multiculturalism and equality
B.Expectations and accountability
C.Innovation and potential
D.Enrichment and remediation
Option (B) is correct.

The driving force behind a standards-based educational system is establishing high expectations and accountability for all students and educators.
At the conclusion of a lesson, a teacher asks students to write down an aspect of the lesson they would like to know more about. The teacher is most likely using this questioning technique to

A.evaluate students' preparation
B.stimulate students to pursue knowledge on their own
C.check for understanding
D.prepare students for what is to be learned
Option (B) is correct.

Asking students to consider aspects of a lesson they would like to know more about stimulates interest, and interest is a powerful motivator for learning.
Ms. Campbell is teaching a lesson on civic engagement to a sixth-grade class. When discussing voting responsibilities, one student asks, "Why should we vote at all?" Seeing an opportunity to expand the discussion, Ms. Campbell describes the struggles people have faced to gain the right to vote. Which of the following best identifies Ms. Campbell's action?

A.Teaching content explicitly
B.Allowing students to learn from each other
C.Monitoring and adjusting instruction
D.Taking advantage of a teachable moment
Option (D) is correct.

A teachable moment is an event that offers an unplanned opportunity to expand or enrich students' understanding. In this case, the student's spontaneous question provides a springboard for a discussion of historical and present struggles to gain the right to vote.
Avery, a first grader, performs at grade level on classroom reading assessments, yet a standardized assessment indicates she is in the 30th percentile for reading for her grade. Her parents are concerned about the discrepancy in test scores. Which of the following is the teacher's best response to the parents' concern?

A.Avery's scores indicate she is a likely candidate for special education services.
B.Avery's level of performance in reading cannot be determined by a single test score.
C.Avery will benefit from one-on-one tutoring with a reading specialist.
D.Avery needs to learn strategies for reducing test anxiety.
Option (B) is correct.

It is most important to remind parents that a full picture of the potential or achievement of a student can only be provided by examining a number and variety of assessments.
ESSAY QUESTION:

Ms. Rogers wants to build the school's physical education program on the basis of her knowledge of adolescent development.

Identify TWO aspects of behavior that are typical of students of this age that she might review with Mr. Baird that would help him meet the needs of his sixth-grade students.

Explain, basing your response on principles of human growth and development.

Scenario:

Mr. Baird is a first-year physical education teacher in an urban school. Mr. Baird, a star athlete when he was a student, has returned to teach because he loved the sports program and wants to share his love of sports with students. By the end of October, he is frustrated because his students do not appear to share his love of sports; he asks for help from his department chair, Ms. Rogers. His after-lunch class is general sixth-grade physical education with 30 students, 14 boys and 16 girls. The students demonstrate a wide range of abilities, and the class is ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. He has invited Ms. Rogers to observe this class and help him improve his instruction in order to improve student involvement and address his instructional objectives.
...
ESSAY QUESTION:

In Document 4, when Mr. Baird says he will talk to Rudy's parents, Rudy says, "It won't do any good."

Identify TWO strategies a teacher in any subject area could use to work with parents that will help students with a history of failure or negativity become more successful learners.

Explain, basing your response on principles of understanding and fostering relationships with families.
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ESSAY QUESTION:

Indicate ONE strength and ONE weakness in the assignment (Document 1) given by Ms. King. Explain, basing your response on principles of planning instruction and behavior and motivation.

Scenario:

Ms. King teaches fourth grade in an urban elementary school. Her class reflects the ethnic, racial, and special-needs diversity of the school. Ms. King prides herself on motivating students to achieve high standards. She has a poster in her room entitled "Fourth Graders' Best," where she posts the students' best work to encourage her students to strive for the best. The following documents relate to her classroom assignments and interactions with students and other faculty.
...
ESSAY QUESTION:

Assume that Ms. King wants to use an end-of-unit assessment that motivates students to do their best. She does not want to use the standardized test that comes with the textbook. Indicate TWO kinds of assessments she might use that would both enable her to evaluate what students have learned about the cultures of the countries studied and motivate them to do their best. Explain, basing your response on principles of formal and informal assessment.

Scenario:

Ms. King teaches fourth grade in an urban elementary school. Her class reflects the ethnic, racial, and special-needs diversity of the school. Ms. King prides herself on motivating students to achieve high standards. She has a poster in her room entitled "Fourth Graders' Best," where she posts the students' best work to encourage her students to strive for the best. The following documents relate to her classroom assignments and interactions with students and other faculty.
...
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