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the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
Abd al Rahman
the one person who escaped Abdullah's deadly dinner and fled to Spain to become the leader of the Spanish Ummayads and make Cordoba his capital
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Not only does Columbus sails the ocean blue, Ferdinand and Isabella end the Reconquista as well
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
Suleiman the Lawgiver
created a law code and extended the ottoman empire to the balkans, the middle east, and northern africa
Turkish Empire following the collapse of the Byzantine Empire. Longest running empire in the history of the Anatolian Peninsula (1258-1918).
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