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Assessment and Research Methods
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Terms in this set (58)
Standard Error of Measurement
Estimates how repeated measures on the same instrument tend to be distributed around his or her "true" score
Standard Deviation
Quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole
Mean
Average
Mode
Most frequent
Median
Middle
Validity
- Accuracy
- Ability to measure what it is supposed to measure
Construct Validity
Adequacy of the operational definition of variables
Face - Appears to reflect the content measured
Conclusion Validity
Extent to which the conclusions about the relationships
among variables reached on the basis of the data are correct or "reasonable."
External Validity
Extent to which the results can be generalized
to other populations and settings
Internal Validity
Ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships
from our data
Reliability
- Consistency or stability
- Related to careful measurement procedures
Correlation Coefficient
Number that tells us how strongly two variables are
related to each other.
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
Stated as "r"
Can range from 0.00 to +1.00 (100% positive) and 0.00 to
-1.00 (100% negative) with 0.00 = zero relationship
Test/Re-test Reliability
Take test 2X
Correlation of score at time 1 with score at
time 1 expected to be similar
Internal Consistency Reliability
Split-half reliability: correlation of total score
on half of test with score on other half
Cronbach's alpha: correlation of each item
on test with every other item
Interrater Reliability
Extent to which raters agree in their observations
Norm-Referenced
Determines whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average respondent by comparing scores against the performance results of a standardized reference group
Regression towards the mean
Whenever you gather a set of extreme scores taken at one time and compare them with scores taken at another point
in time and they get closer to normal
Maturation
Changes that occur systematically over time that impact test results
Threats of Validity
History
Testing
Maturation
Instrument decay
Regression towards the mean
Dependent Variable
Effect
Measured
Veritical axis
Independent Variable
Cause
Manipulated
Horizontal axis
Confounding Variable
When two variables are intertwined so you cannot determine which of the variables is operating in a given
situation
Analysis of Covariance
Allows to comparison with 1 variable in 2 or more groups correcting variability of other variables, called covariates.
ANOVA
Analysis of variance, a statistical method in which the variation in a set of observations is divided into distinct components
T-Score
- A t-score is a type of standard score computed by multiplying a z score by 10 and adding 50
- Used when there is an unknown population standard deviation
Z-Score
- A z-score indicates how many standard deviations an element is from the mean
- Conversion of individual scores into a standard form
- Allows us to calculate the probability of a score occurring within our normal distribution
- Compare two scores that are from different normal distributions
Positive Linear Relationship
Increases in the values of one variable are accompanied
by increases in the values of the second variable
Negative Linear Relationship
Increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable
Curvilinear Relationship
Increases in the values of one variable are accompanied
by both increases and decreases in the values of the other variable... The direction of the relationship changes at least once
Experimental Method
Direct manipulation and control of variables
Non-experimental Method
OR
Correlational Method
- Allows us to observe co-variation between
variables
- To examine whether the variables correlate or vary together
Face Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
Appears to accurately assess the intended variable
"On the face of it"
Concurrent Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
Research that examines the relationship between the measure and a criterion behavior at the same time
Convergent Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
Extent to which scores on the measure in question are related to scores on other measures of the same/similar constructs
Discriminant Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
When the measure is not related to variables with which it should not be related
Content Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
Comparing the content of the measure with the "universe" of content that defines the construct
EX: a measure of depression would have content that links to each of the symptoms of depression
Predictive Validity (sub-type of construct validity)
When scores on a measure predict future behavior
EX: GRE predicting college performance
Naturalistic Observation
When a researcher makes observations in a particular natural setting (the field) over an extended period of time, using a variety of techniques to collect information.
Systematic Observation
Careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting
Interviewer Bias
All of the biases that can arise from the fact that the interviewer is a unique human being interacting with another human
Confidence Interval (sampling error or margin of error)
Gives information about the likely amount of the error
Simple Random Sampling
Every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample
Stratified Random Sampling
The population is divided into subgroups (or strata), and random sampling techniques are then used to select sample members from each stratum
Cluster Sampling
Rather than randomly sampling from a list of individuals,
the researcher can identify "clusters" of individuals and then sample from these clusters
Post-test Only Design
(1) obtain two equivalent groups of participants
(2) introduce the independent variable
(3) measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Pre-test/Post-test Design
A pretest is given before the experimental manipulation
is introduced. This design makes it possible to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, equivalent at the beginning of the experiment
Ceiling Effect
The IV has no impact on the DV because participants quickly reach the maximum performance
level
Floor Effect
When a task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well
Experimenter Bias (Expectancy Effects)
When experimenters become aware of the purpose of the study and develop expectations about how participants should respond that bias the results
Factorial Designs
Designs with more than one independent variable
Cross-sectional Method
Persons of different ages are studied at only one point in time
Longitudinal Method
Same group of people is observed at different points in time as they grow older
Cohort
Group of people born at about the same time, exposed to the same events in a society, and influenced by the same demographic trends such as divorce rates and family size
Sequential Method
1st phase = Cross-sectional
2nd phase = Longitudinal
Null Hypothesis
Simply that the population means are equal—the observed difference is due to random error
Type I Error
FALSE POSITIVE
- Made when we reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is actually true
EX: Eptopic pregnancy (HCG levels up, not viable pregnancy)
Type II Error
FALSE NEGATIVE
- Null hypothesis is accepted although in the population the research hypothesis is true
EX: Early pregnancy not detected (Pregnant but HCG levels are to low to detect)
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