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Terms in this set (45)
An art movement characterized by distortion, daring color, unbalanced compositions, and emotional expression. It was developed between 1520 and 1600 in reaction to
Jacopo da Pontormo
(1494 - 1557) An Italian painter and a leader of the Mannerist movement who painted portraits and religious subject matter.
Major work: The Descent from the Cross, ca. 1525.
(1503 - 1540) An Italian Mannerist painter.
Major works: Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror, ca. 1523; Madonna with the Long Neck, ca. 1535.
An artistic technique used to create exaggerated or unrealistic perspectives or positions.
(1519 - 1594) A Mannerist painter from Venice particularly influenced by Venetian color and drama.
Major work: Last Supper, 1594.
(1541 - 1614) A Greek painter known for his dramatic paintings and elongated figures; he spent most of his active career in Renaissance Spain.
Major works: The View of Toledo, ca. 1604; The Vision of Saint John, 1608 - 1614.
The Vision of Saint John
A painting by the Mannerist El Greco completed between 1608 and 1614 that tells a story from the New Testament book of Revelation. The distorted and abstract nature of both the figures and the background is characteristic of the artist's innovative and unique style.
A period lasting from roughly 1550 to 1750 in which rich artwork was produced for both Catholics and Protestants. The Catholic Baroque is characterized by drama and dynamic compositions, while the Protestant Baroque is known for lush everyday scenes, portraits, and still lifes.
Bolognese art academy
A school for artists founded in 1582 by painter Annibale Carracci and members of his family. It was the first institution geared to educate artists about Classical principles, styles, and philosophies.
(1560 - 1609) An Italian painter who pioneered the Baroque concept of the heroic landscape. He and other members of the Carracci family started the Bolognese art academy.
Major work: The Flight into Egypt, 1603 - 1604.
A Baroque style of ideal landscape painting that reflected the universal truths of balance and harmony of nature by creating vast and beautiful scenes, usually taken from biblical or mythological stories. This style is exemplified by the works of Poussin and Lorrain.
The Flight into Egypt
A circa 1603 painting by Annibale Carracci that depicts Joseph and Mary's journey from Jerusalem into Egypt. It is an early example of the heroic Baroque landscape. Instead of a desert, it places the figures in a serene and lush setting typical of Greek and Roman art.
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
(1573 - 1610) An Italian painter best known for his use of light to create realistic paintings, mostly of religious subjects. He is credited with inventing the tenebroso or "dark manner" technique.
Major work: The Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1599.
From the Italian for "dark and gloomy," the term describes paintings created with intense chiaroscuro to highlight extremes of light and dark within a single area; Caravaggio is generally credited with its invention. Also called dark manner.
The Calling of Saint Matthew
A circa 1599 painting by Caravaggio that exemplifies the artist's use of tenebroso, in this case to add drama to the biblical scene. It depicts Saint Matthew learning of his destiny from Jesus Christ.
(1593 - ca. 1651) An Italian painter considered to be a "Caravaggista" (a close follower of Caravaggio). The first woman admitted to the Academy of the Arts of Drawing, she was respected and protected by the Medici family.
Major works: Judith Beheading Holofernes, first version, 1612; second and larger version, 1614.
(1599 - 1660) A Spanish Baroque painter who spent most of his career as King Phillip IV's official royal court painter. He is best known for painting portraits and scenes from history and mythology.
Major work: Las Meninas, 1656.
Spanish for "The Maids of Honor," this Diego Velázquez masterpiece (1656 ) depicts Velázquez himself painting the king and queen of Spain as their daughter, Margarita, bursts in with her attendants. All the figures interact with one another and with the viewer in such interesting ways that this piece is still discussed and debated today.
Peter Paul Rubens
(1577 - 1640) A Flemish painter and accomplished businessman, linguist, and diplomat. Known for landscapes and portraits, Rubens displayed a knowledge of Classical form and technique in his paintings. He often painted scenes that reflected his distaste for war and his desire for peace.
Major works: The Fall of Phaeton,, ca. 1605; Marie de' Medici cycle, 1621 - 1625; Allegory on the Blessings of Peace, 1629 - 1630.
A term named after the style of Peter Paul Rubens to describe a voluptuous or curvy female figure.
Allegory on the Blessings of Peace
A circa 1629 painting by Peter Paul Rubens that displays a stark contrast between a foreground depicting peace, prosperity, and happiness and a background showing war and suffering.
(1594 - 1665) A French Classical painter, active in Italy, who believed that heroic narratives were worth painting; he created the Grand Manner style.
Major works: The Rape of the Sabine Women, 1633; Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655.
A 17th- and 18th-century style, championed by Nicolas Poussin and based on Classical art, that incorporated the science and naturalism of the Renaissance with metaphorical subject matter. Also called great style.
The Rape of the Sabine Women
A circa 1633 painting by Nicolas Poussin that depicts a scene in which the Romans capture Sabine women to take them as their wives. This classical story is both physically and emotionally dramatic, and the painting is a good example of Poussin's use of heroic subject matter and the Grand Manner of painting.
(1604 - 1682) A French Baroque painter who lived and worked in Italy. He is famous for painting heroic landscapes and seascapes and for experimenting with light.
Major works: Embarkation of St. Paula Romana at Ostia, ca. 1639; Aeneas at Delos, 1672; The Book of Truth, collected sketches of each of his works considered a work of art unto itself.
Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606 - 1669) An artist considered to be the best Dutch painter of his time. He is known for dark, emotionally charged paintings and subtle, detailed portraits. Major works: Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp, 1632; The Blinding of Samson, ca. 1636; The Sampling Officials of the Draper's Guild, 1662.
The Sampling Officials of the Drapers' Guild
A circa 1662 group portrait by Rembrandt that is a prime example of his use of delicate light and subtle details. Rembrandt's portrayal of the individual traits of each person heightens the relationships among the figures.
A style of artwork in which everyday scenes are depicted, often with great detail and subtle symbolism. It was first popular in 17th-century Holland.
(1632 - 1675) A Dutch painter best known for his ability to create genre scenes with realistic light and detail through his use of underpainting and glazing. Also known as Jan Vermeer.
Major works: The Girl with the Pearl Earring, 1655; The Milkmaid, ca. 1657.
A circa 1657 genre painting by Jan Vermeer that depicts a housemaid pouring milk. The activity represents a model of domestic virtue, painted here using realistic human form and idealized light.
A technique in which paints are thinned and applied in many layers to a previously painted surface, resulting in the appearance of reflected light.
A painting used as a base for glazing or further painting.
French Royal Academy
An art school founded in 1648. Its views were based on the theory and work of Nicolas Poussin, with a focus on Classical art and philosophy. It developed a ranking system for artists past and present.
An art movement of the 18th century characterized by delicate colors, curved asymmetrical lines, and carefree content.
(1684 - 1721) A French painter and draftsman who pioneered the Rococo style. He is best known for painting charming theatrical scenes.
Major work: The Embarkation for Cythera, 1717.
The Embarkation for Cythera
A 1717 masterpiece by Watteau. It is a theatrical and frivolous portrayal of the paradise of Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Typical of the Rococo style, it is considered to mark the beginning of the Rococo period.
Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Le Brun
(1755 - 1842) A French Rococo artist who became popular by painting portraits of royalty and aristocrats; especially known for her many portraits of French queen Marie Antoinette.
Major works: Peace Bringing Back Prosperity, 1780; Marie Antoinette in Muslin, 1786; Lady Hamilton as the Persian Sybil, ca. 1792.
A period of political change and revolution in France (1789 - 1799) when the common man rose up against the aristocracy. It ended in the Reign of Terror, during which close to 40,000 people were killed.
Jean-Baptiste- Siméon Chardin
(1699 - 1779) A French painter and draftsman who rejected the fantastical and whimsical tendencies of his Rococo contemporaries. Praised by Denis Diderot, the first modern art critic, he is best known for his still lifes and for painting in pastels. He was an extremely active member of the French Royal Academy.
Major works: The Ray, 1728; The Return from Market, 1738; Girl with Racket and Shuttlecock, ca. 1740.
A 1728 kitchen scene painted by Chardin that earned him entrance to the French Royal Academy. Meant to portray the simplicity of everyday life, it is grounded and modest in contrast to the fantastical and lavish Rococo paintings common at the time.
England's Royal Academy of Art
England's first official school of art since the Middle Ages, founded in 1768. It focused on history painting and was based on Classical and Renaissance values.
Sir Joshua Reynolds
(1723 - 1792) An English painter and writer who worked in the Grand Manner, painting noble, heroic subjects in perfect proportion. It is estimated that he created 3,000 paintings, mostly portraits. He was a founding member and president of the Royal Academy of Arts.
Major works: Lord Burghersh, 1764; Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney: The Archers, 1769.
Sir Thomas Gainsborough
(1727 - 1788) An English landscape and portrait painter who relied on his observation of nature rather than formal techniques. He was a founding member of the Royal Academy of Arts.
Major works: Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, ca. 1750; Mrs. Sarah Siddons, ca. 1784.
(1697 - 1764) English painter, illustrator, and satirist famous for his many print series and for creating the morality play genre.
Major works: A Rake's Progress, 1732 - 1734; Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1743.
A genre created in the 1730s by William Hogarth, in which a series of prints depicts subjects such as a cast of actors in a play. Each series contains repeated symbols or images that unify the story and send a moral message to viewers.
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