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a series of events that the author creates that build upon one another (meant to entertain)

simple narrative account

non-fiction, chronological list of events (police report), purpose is to tell what happens

plotless short story

fiction, sole purpose is to entertain the reader, describes characters in a situation; does not develop or resolve a conflict

in media ras

story begins at middle; then goes back and fills the reader in through flashbacks and other forms of exposition

frame story

a story within a story

typical plot structure

exposition; complication; technical climax; resolution; conclusion


background, character, and setting information given; where conflict is introduced


conflict is developed(may use suspense and foreshadowing)


anticipation for the outcome of events


a hint at later events


produces and propells plot;interplay between opposing elements

protagonist vs. self

internal struggle

protagonist vs. others

external struggle with people, society

protagonist vs. enviornment

external struggle with nature

technical climax

turning point of plot, protagonist has the opportunity to change, conflict begins to come to an end

dramatic climax

not related to plot structure; point of greatest interest or intensity; subjective


events that come after the technical climax; works out the decision that was made during the technical climax


the final events of a stories plot


represented time and place in a story

functions of setting

to help in understanding of the characters and their actions; to help create mood and atmosphere; to facilitate plot development by being involved in the conflict

pathetic fallacy

when enviornment parallels the characters mood or feelings


a fictional personality created by the author


technique used by writers to create a reveal characters (consistency and credibility are essential)

expository character revelation

straight-forward mannar of telling the reader about a character; less attention-getting

dramatic character revelation

characterizing through thoughts, dialouge, and action, less quick but more attention-getting


the reasons that cause the characters to act the way they do


main character in a work of fiction; often sets the plot into motion


person or thing working against the protagonist

round character

a well described character; whose thoughts and actions are clearly revealed throughout the story

flat character

a character who is not well described

dynamic character

a character who grows, learns, or changes from the way they were at the beginning to the story

static character

a character who resists or refuses to change by the end of the story

foil character

a character who contrasts in some important way with an important character

consistent character

a character whose speech, actions, and thoughts are what is expected by the reader (all good characters are this)

stock character

a type of character who is in stock in a particular type of story

stereotyped character

a character created to a widely held (often narrow-minded) idea; has no individuality and is not well developed

point of view

the relationship between the narrator and the story's characters and events


the teller of the story

first person

the narrator is a character in the story

third person objective

the narrator is not a character in the story and reports only what can be seen and heard

third person limited omniscient

the narrator is not a character in the story and reports not only what can be seen and heard, but also the thoughts and feelings of one of the characters

third person omniscient

the narrator is not a character in the story and reports not only what can be seen and heard, but also the thoughts and feelings of all of the important characters


idea of a literary work that is a general truth or commentary about life

guidelines to stating theme

must be complete sentence, must be a general truth about life, brought out throughout the entire story


the readers state of mind at the end of the story


the general feeling of the story usually set by the setting


the way the writer writes (with diction, syntax)


word choice


sentence structure


the narrator's attitude towards the characters, events, or audience, conveyed by authors words


using something concrete to represent something abstract; represents idea, quality, concept or condition


a contrast between the way things are and the way they appear to be

verbal irony

a difference between what is said and what it is meant; could be sarcasm

dramatic irony

when the reader knows something the character is not aware of

situational irony

when the outcome of events is not expected (twist in the plot)

immediate setting

where most of the actions take place

absent setting

setting that you only hear about never actually visit in the story

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