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Cognition and Emotion
Terms in this set (36)
How are mood and emotion different?
mood is overt, emotion is covert
mood is sometimes representable by behavior
mood is temporary, emotions are long lasting, more intense
What are Appraisal Theories? appraisal theories of emotion?
judgment of a person, object; evaluation of something
emotions are processes and adaptive response that reflect evaluations of features of the environment significant for organisms well-being
Name two Appraisal theories
Lazarus's Original Version (1966)
Smith and Lazarus's Revised Version (1993)
Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory (1966): general definition
You have to appraise an event in order to make it that way; nothing is scary unless you think it's scary, something cannot be joyful by itself
Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory (1966): 3 forms of appraisal
first form of appraisal in Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory
an environmental situation is regarded as positive, stressful, or irrelevant to well-being
second form of appraisal in Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory
account is taken of the resources the individual has to cope with the situation
for example, asses if you have time, social and physical resources, cognitive energy for situation
not necessarily conscious
third form of appraisal in Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory
stimulus situation and coping strategies are monitored, with the primary and secondary appraisals being monitored if necessary
Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory (1966): 2 kinds of appraisal
2 important developments following Lazarus's Original Appraisal theory
Data showed each distinct emotion is going to be appraised in distinctly different ways
Found there are six different appraisal components, 2 involving primary and 4 involving secondary
Smith and Lazarus's Revised Version (1993): 2 kinds of primary appraisal
1. Motivational relevance (HAVE to do)
2. Motivational congruence (WANT to do)
first kind of primary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
Things you HAVE to do
Is this related to my personal commitments?
second kind of primary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
things you WANT to do
is this consistent with my personal goals?
Smith and Lazarus's Revised Version (1993): 4 kinds of secondary appraisals
problem-focused coping potential
emotion-focused coping potential
accountability (appraisal theory)
third step, a kind of secondary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
Who deserves the credit or blame in this situation
problem-focused coping potential (appraisal theory)
fourth step, a kind of secondary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
can the situation be resolved?
don't need this step if situation is happy
emotion-focused coping potential (appraisal theory)
fifth step, a kind of secondary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
can situation be handled psychologically?
future expectancy (appraisal theory)
sixth step, a kind of secondary appraisal in Smith and Lazarus's revised appraisal theory
how likely is it the situation will change?
What is Easterbrook's Hypothesis?
increasing anxiety narrows attention, which increases attention to goal-relevant cues and decreases attention to goal-irrelevant cues
whether something that works in the lab actually occurs in the real world
What modifications does Eysenck make to Easterbrook's Hypothesis?
Too much anxiety removes relevant cues and interferes with attention and other cognitive faculties
Increased stress improves what kind of LTM and worsens what kind of LTM?
improves goal-directed LTM
decreases peripheral LTM
______ changes which kinds of memory are easier to recall
Mood congruent effect
memories are better retrieved if current mood matches the affective content of memory
If you are sad on a specific day, you will remember sad memories better that day; if yo are happy, will not remember sad memories as well
Works at both coding and retrieval process
Does mood congruent effect work better for positive or negative memories? Why?
works better for positive memories
not helpful to remember sad memories if you're already upset
we tend to seek out happy things and avoid unhappy things; we never encode the sad/scary stuff as well as happy memories
Are actual memories affected in mood congruent effect? Or are individuals more willing to report mood-congruent memories, even if not accurate?
actual memories are effected. Avoiding negative moods limits one's access to negative affective cues. Limited cues makes it harder to recall detail. Works at both coding and retrieval process
What is the neurological explanation for the mood congruent effect?
Positive and negative emotions are correlated with different brain areas
What is the right cingulate cortex responsible for? (mood congruency effect)
physical and emotional pain
emotional value of physical pain: if you care about pain less, you are literally in less pain
associated with positive words at learning and at retrieval
What is the orbitofrontal cortex associated with? (mood congruency effect)
associated with negative words at learning and retrieval
Mood state-dependent effect
retrieval improves if encoding and retrieval occur under similar moods
How does Mood State-dependent Effect affect free recall and cued recall tests?
Free recall is stronger when moods match at learning and retrieval
cued recall is strong regardless of match or mismatch of mood at learning & retrieval
Why does mood state-dependent effect occur?
your mood acts as a cue for the memory, the same way location, time of day, etc. acts as a cue
Are dramatic unexpected events treated differently than other types of memory?
No, flashbulb memories only FEEL different because they are high in vividness
arousal and stress DO enhance neural mechanisms for encoding, storage, retrieval, but mechanism is the same
depend on same factors as any other new memory (personal importance, overt rehearsal, novelty of event, relevant prior knowledge)
flashbulb memories definition; what information does a flashbulb memory include?
Vivid, long-lasting autobiographical memories for important, dramatic and surprising public events (and private events)
Includes: emotional state of self and others, informant, place the news was heard, ongoing activity, consequences
Reason people think flashbulb memories are special?
we feel more confident about them, they feel more important, high in vividness, rehearsed more frequently
Why are flashbulb memories actually more inaccurate than other memories?
Each time you tell/remember a memory, you are weaving in false memories, so while they feel accurate because of your frequent recall, the frequent recall actually makes them more inaccurate
This set is often in folders with...
Cognition and emotion
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