Terms in this set (61)
Ability to remember the things we have learned, experienced, and imagined. Capacity to retain and retrieve information
Good for largely meaningless information. More easily forgotten. Maintenance/Rehearsal
Meaningless/ Deep Processing
Easier to learn than nonsense. Easier if you understand the basics. Understand the "why" material is easier to learn
Ability to relate material to you
Processing information in a meaningful way by attaching associations to a concept. The more colorful or imaginative, the easier the recall. Ex: Acrobat has well-developed cerebellum
Information Processing Model
A computer like model used to describe the ways humans encode, store, and retrieve information
Ways you make mental presentations. The more ways you do this the easier it is to store in short and long term memory.
Visual or Iconic Codes
Research by George Sperling Ex: Study by staring at notes
Acoustic or Echoic Codes
Sounds and saying things out loud
Giving personal meaning to memory
Keeping information over time
Getting information from memory to consciousness Ex: Childhood memory
Sensory Registers/ Sensory Memory
Information stored momentarily. Entry points for raw information from senses. Uses pattern recognition. Anything that doesn't go beyond here is lost. First stop for material, sensory experiences taken in
Holds echoes of sound fades more slowly than visual information
Selection of certain information for further processing. Normally pay attention to only a small amount of incoming information
Concentration on one sensation but not completely blocking out others Ex: Cocktail Party Phenomenon
Short Term Memory
Limited capacity-limited time. Holds seven items plus/minus 2-George Miller. Few seconds to a day. Information retained by rote rehearsal. "Working Memory"
Break into groups. Aids in making the most of limited capacity. Grouping information into related units. Ex: Phone number
Long Term Memory
Stores unlimited information for relatively permanent amount of time. Corresponds to everything we know
Set of beliefs or expectations about something that is biased on past experience. Mental presentations stored in memory. Ex: File Folder
Events experienced by a person or took place in the persons presence. Ex: TV show of life's memories
General knowledge. Dictionary/ Encyclopedia
Skills and habits. "How to do things"
Learned emotional responses. Ex: Classical Conditioning
Explicit/ Declarative Memory
Information we can readily express in words; intentionally retrieve from memory. Can be episodic/semantic
Implicit/ Non-declarative Memory
Information that we cannot readily express verbally and may not be aware of having. Procedural/Emotional
Neurons can strengthen connections between each other. Done by repeated things. Reflecting and reviewing information. Biological explanation of what happens in brain.
Retrieval process where we bring information from long-term to short-term memory
Ability to remember what is learned
Measuring retention by having subject learn material over again. Second time vs. First time
Subject must reproduce material from memory with few clues Ex: Essay test, fill in the blank
Subject must identify what has been learned Ex: Multiple choice, Matching
Inability to recall familiar words or memories. Focused on tiny piece of information. Begin with same letter, same number of syllables, sound the same
Semantic Network Theory
Brain forms new memories by connecting with those already stored. Issues with process the interconnected memories can result in this phenomenon
Impacts rate of recall. Recall more if mood is the same as when learned the information. When happy- recall happier memories more easily.
Learning in one chemical or physical state is best reproduced when same state occurs again. Ex: scene of a crime, sit in same seat taking test
Unusual associations made to material to aid memory. Special strategies, quick tricks Ex: action, color, bizarre images
Relating items to be learned to a list of familiar locations. Ex: clock directions, baseball field
Ex: Every good boy does fine
First letter of every word to be remembered is used to create a new word or phrase Ex: FOIL
Increase in errors as we attempt to retrieve material from memory
Passage of time causes forgetting
New information can wipe out old unused information
The Forgetting Curve
Herman Ebbinghaus- greatest memory loss occurs immediately following learning. Memorization of nonsense syllables. After one perfect trial- forgetting will occur rapidly if rehearsal stops. 50% lost in first hour. 65% lost after two hours
Serial Position Effect
Tendency to recall the first items (primacy effect) and last items (decency effect) Middle is often confused or forgotten.
Additional stimuli presented simultaneously with the material to be learned may make learning more difficult. Causes blockage in recall
New info interferes with info already in memory. Transfer of information is difficult. Ex: Learning new phone # can't remember old one
Information already in memory interferes with new info. Ex: parking car in different spot from the norm
Psychological- inability to recall events preceding an accident or injury. Can't remember right before.
Inability to recall events after an accident or injury, can learn new skills
Neurological disorder causing severe memory loss. Reduction in ACH transmitter
Photographic/ Eidetic Memory
Alexander Luria- Memory keeps image "in front of person" after image is taken away. 100% accuracy is rare
Often wrong. Descriptions fit stereotypes. Memory can be easily changed. Influenced by power of suggestion. Misleading information/comments. Ex: wording of questions using "a" or "the"
Recollection of events that happened in our lifetime. Studies show 80% of memories are from the ages of 18-35. Life changing moments
Difficulty remembering experiences from birth- 2 years. Brain not fully developed. No clear sense of self
Vivid memory of a certain event and the incidents that surround it long after time has passed. Unusual, shocking, tragic, strong emotional connection. Can have errors and fade over time. Ex) 911
Also know as reconstructed memory. False details of real events. Recollection of an event that never occurred. Often created by misleading questions, hearing details of story repeatedly. Feels accurate to person recalling it
Coping mechanism- Freud: we purposely push painful memories deep into our unconscious mind so they don't harm us.
At an event but missed what happened
False memory- remember something that never happened to us