Ch 10 Public Speaking

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Terms in this set (...)

language
system of words people use to communicate with others
symbols
something such as a word that stands for something else, such as a person, place, or thing
3 characteristics of language
arbitrary, ambiguous, abstract, active
arbitrary
because there's no direct connection between a word and what it represents, different groups of people have different words that stand for the same things
ambiguous
words have multiple meanings and individuals have their own meanings, or associations, for words and the concepts those words stand for
denotative meanings
formal or literal meanings, dictionary definitions
connotative meanings
unique meanings you have for words based on your own experiences
tone
use of language to set mood/atmosphere associated with the speech
abstract
hear, write, and read the words; you can place your hand on the pace or screen and touch the words, but the meanings of those words conjure up exist in your mind
active
you affect those around you with words
slang
informal, nonstandard language, often used within a particular group
(whatever, chill)
jargon
technical language used by members of a profession or associated within a specific topic
(doctors and medical words)
idioms
an expression that means something other than the literal meaning of the words; practical meanings
(that test was a piece of cake)
example of idiom
"you'd better hit the books if you're going to pass your classes"
euphemisms
words used in place of another word that is viewed as offensive
(pornos = adult films)
cliches
obvious and so overused expression that it fails to have an important meaning
(thinking outside the box)
tag questions
a question added onto the end of declarative statement that lessens the impact of that statement; powerless language
(ex: don't you think?)
hedges
a qualifier, such as probably, that makes a statement ambiguous
nonsexist language
words that are not associated with either sex
(ex: stewardess v. flight attendant)
5 characteristics of
Spoken vs. Written Language
dynamic v. static
immediate v. distant
informal v. formal
irreversible v. revisable
narrative v. facts
Dynamic v Static
Speaking = dynamic bc it is in the moment
Written = static bc readers can reread a passage over and over
Immediate v Distant
Speakers = get immediate feedback form audience
Writers = do not, makes it distant
Informal v Formal
Speak = informally with friends, neighbors, coworkers
Contrast = use formal language when giving speech
Irreversible v Revisable
Speaking = once you've said it, you can't take it back
Writing = you can revise it many times
Narrative v Fact
Speaking = can tell stories
Writing = better for facts and statistics so you can review numbers and facts
Put your language in context by:
mentioning the location
referring to current events
responding to what happens during the speech
Personalize your language by:
integrate audience analysis info
remark on what other speakers have said
use "we" "us" "you" and "I"
inclusive language
words that don't privilege one group over another
noninclusive language
promotes discrimination and stereotyping, even if the speaker's word choices are unintentional
ex: emphasizes race, class, gender, age, etc
use visual language by incorporating:
similes
metaphors
parallelism
rhyme
alliteration
antithesis
simile
2 things share some similar qualities; use like and as
metaphors
the commonalities between 2 dissimilar things
"life is a rollercoaster"
parallelism
using the same phrase, wording, or clause multiple times to add emphasis
rhyme
using words with similar sounds at the end of the word, to emphasize a point
alliteration
repetition of a sound in a series of words, usually the first consonant
antithesis
juxtaposition of 2 apparently contradictory phrases that are organized in a parallel structure
invitations to imagine
asking listeners to create a scene or situation in their minds
humor
relax speaker and create common ground with listener, gain audience's confidence
Guidelines for Using Language in Your Speech:
use spoken language
choose meaningful words
balance, clarity, and ambiguity
be concise
avoid offensive and aggressive language
build in redundancy
don't get too attached to your words