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FINAL EXAM US HISTORY
Terms in this set (53)
Impact of Europeans on native peoples
Columbus thought that his men were much more superior to the Arawak Indians and felt that the Indians made perfect slaves because they were so peaceful and friendly. Columbus and his men enslaved the Indians and took their land through the Encomienda system. The Indians were worked so hard that they died by the thousands and some chose to commit suicide instead of face a life of cruel treatment.
The FIRST permanent English SETTLEMENT in the Americas in 1607. The original group of colonists here suffered from disease and conflicts with Indians, but then John Rolfe introduced a new form of tobacco and it became a very profitable crop which led to success of the settlement. Jamestown was a place for entrepreneurs.
This was the first settlement in the New England region. Founded by a group of Separatists in 1620 who were fleeing from religious persecution in England. They wanted to set up a religions utopia in America based on strict Puritan values. The social, political, and legal systems of the colony became closely tied to their Puritan religious beliefs (theocracy).
Reasons for settling in Plymouth
Puritans from England came to America hoping to build a new Christian society that would be a model for the world. Governor Winthrop called it "A City Upon a Hill" - an example of a truly Godly society. A religious utopia
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the original English settlements in Massachusetts Bay. It was settled by a group of 1,000 Puritan refugees in 1630. In 1629 the Massachusetts Bay Company had obtained from King Charles I a charter empowering the company to trade and colonize in New England between the Charles and Merrimack rivers.
She was an outspoken Puritan spiritual leader who challenged the established Puritan clergy in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She created such a theological schism that she threatened to destroy the tight religious community of New England. However, she ended up being tried and convicted of heresy and was banished.
Reasons for settling in Maryland
Colony founded for religious freedom. It was a refuge for English CATHOLICS; the founders also passed a law "Toleration Act" which guaranteed all Christians the right to worship as they pleased
Reasons for settling in Georgia
Georgia was the last colony to be founded. Known as "debtors colony." Oglethorpe wanted it to be a place where English prisoners (people in prison for being in debt) could come live and have a second chance. King George approved the charter but what he really wanted was for Georgia to become a buffer against Spanish in south
Reasons for settling in Virginia
Founded primarily for the purpose of getting rich and making a profit. Jamestown, became a prosperous shipping and tobacco producing colony. Many settlers and indentured servants came to Virginia because of the Headright system where they would be granted 50 acres of land if they settled there.
It was a system developed in Virginia which granted 50 acres of land to new settlers who could pay their way to get to Virginia. It was used to attract new settlers to address a labor shortage in tobacco farming. Wealthy people could earn more headrights if they paid for others to come (indentured servants)
House of Burgesses
It was an assembly of elected representatives from Virginia that met from 1643 to 1776. This DEMOCRATICALLY elected legislative body was the FIRST of its kind in English North America. Marked the beginning of representative government in English colonies.
The first uprising by colonists against their own government
- In 1676 some Virginia settlers, led by Nathanial Bacon, clashed with Native Americans and wanted help from their Governor, William Berkeley. But governor refused to help bc didn't want to get into a war with Native Americans. Bacon and men burned Jamestown, but then Bacon died so the rebellion collapsed.
Causes of French Indian War
Both France and England were fighting for control of America. France controlled most of the interior of America and Britain controlled the area on the East coast. France became worried that the colonists were trying to take over the Ohio Valley which belonged to them. France joined with many Indian tribes to fight back, resulting in the French and Indian War. Britain sent troops to help the colonists in the French and Indian War and in the end, Britain won the war.
Effects of the French Indian War
England won the War against the French/Indians
-England gained a lot of land in North America
-England had a lot of debt from the war
-British were mad at the colonists for not supporting the war more since it was really being fought to protect them! England was so annoyed that they decided they needed to impose more authority over the colonies, including taxing the colonists to pay for the war debt
British put a tax on every printed document in the colonies - newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets etc. Their intent was to raise revenue for Britain to pay off war debt. These taxes affected everyone in the colonies so they really angered the colonists. Viewed above all as "Taxation without Representation". Colonists boycotted English goods so it was repealed
Colonists argued that the Stamp Act was not proper because:
a) it affected only a few people, so the burden was not shared.
b) the money raised would not be spent in the colonies.
c) colonies could be taxed only by their provincial assemblies.
d) the tax was too high.
c) colonies could be taxed only by their provincial assemblies.
British authorities decided to repeal the Stamp Act primarily because of the:
a) passage of the "Virginia Resolves."
b) well-reasoned petitions of the Stamp Act Congress.
c) intimidation tactics employed by the Sons of Liberty.
d) economic pressure caused by a colonial boycott of English goods.
d) economic pressure caused by a colonial boycott of English goods.
The colonists were mad about the taxes imposed by Britain so they started harassing the British tax collectors. Britain sent in soldiers to protect their tax collectors. On March 5, 1770 a group of colonists started to harass the soldiers outside the British customs house and so the captain lined up his troops outside. There was a scuffle in the crowd and one British soldier was knocked down. Then the British soldiers fired into the crowd and 5 colonists died, including Crispus Attucks. It was really just a night of panic and confusion but the colonists used this as a SYMBOL of BRITISH OPPRESSION AND BRUTALITY.
How did colonists learn about Boston Massacre
-Paul Revere created a sensational engraving of the conflict which was used as propoganda against Britain
- News spread quickly through newspapers
-It was called a "bloody massacre" even though only 5 people really died
This was a group of delegates from all 13 colonies who became the governing group of the United States during the American Revolution. Their first task was to draft a list of grievances against King of England. They recommended that colonists make preparations for war with British and stop all trade with Great Britain. Then they declared war with England.
Causes of American Revolution
Britain felt that the colonists should help pay for the debt from French Indian War since Britain had fought for the war on behalf of the colonists. However, the colonists were not willing to help pay Britain's war debt. So England decided that the only way to collect money was to tax the colonies. Britain also felt that the colonies were gaining too much independence and wanted to assert their control over them.
British put in controls/taxes that angered colonists:
Proclamation of 1763
Repeal of Stamp act and passage of Declaratory Act
Coercive or Intolerable Acts
Lexington and Concord (first battles of war over gunpowder)
PS Cami Steppe Quickly Replied to Ty Corley's Laugh (?)
Effect of American Revolution
America declared itself independent from England in the Declaration of Independence. This was a document that announced that the thirteen American colonies which were at war with Britain were now independent states, no longer a part of the British Empire.
-Now colonies started to call themselves STATES
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation was first Constitution of US put into place after Revolutionary War. It had several weaknesses including:
-No separate executive branch
-Only one vote per state (not based on population of state)
-No federal courts
-No power to tax
-No way to regulate interstate commerce
-States could coin their own money
Under the Articles of Confederation, the only institution of national authority was the:
a) Supreme Court.
c) President of the United States.
4000 citizens got weapons and rebelled against the government in Massachusetts over taxes. Even tried to steal US military weapons. Made founding fathers realize US needed a STRONGER CENTRAL government to prevent these types of rebellions in the future. --> led to REVISING the Articles of Confederation
Developed Constitution of United States that had a bicameral legislative branch:
- house of representatives - representatives based on population
- senate - 2 senators per state
It settled the issue of how to treat slaves in determining population of each state for House of Representatives
It was decided that slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation. Also agreed that foreign slave trade could not be banned for 20 years. This compromise bt north states and south states was reached to get the Constitution approved.
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan
AH was appointed Secretary of the Treasury under Washington. He proposed:
- a permanent national debt
- a national bank as a way to collect taxes, facilitate government spending, and loan money to businesses.
- two taxes to be put in place to help the government earn revenue. One was a tax on alcoholic beverages and the other was a tariff on imports
Happened in 1794 when GW was president. Farmers in Western Pennsylvania did not want to pay the new Whiskey excise tax, so they began terrorizing tax collectors. Farmers felt the tax was unfair and they were being oppressed by the federal government. Washington sent 13,000 soldiers to Pennsylvania and crushed the revolt.
-Showed FEDERAL SUPREMACY, meaning Fed government has power to control uprisings and rebellions
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by John Adams (2nd president of United States). He was a federalist and he did not want any opposition to Federalist party.
-Alien Acts discriminated against immigrants (mostly aimed at French and Irish) and made it hard for them to become citizens (e.g. increased waiting period to become a citizen from 5 years to 14 years)
-The Sedition Acts made it illegal to speak out against the government
-The A+S Acts were some of most controversial legislation in US history.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
This was the response to A+S acts
-Republicans felt that A+S Acts were part of Federalist effort to destroy them, so they tried to reverse the acts.
-passed resolutions in 2 states (Kentucky and Virginia) that invoked the 10th Amendment (states rights) that said that if a state felt that the federal government had overstepped its power, then the state had the right to "nullify" those laws.
Napoleon (leader of France) needed to raise money to fight in wars in Europe, so he sold 828,000 miles of land west of the Mississippi River to the US for $15million (cheap!)
-It more than DOUBLED the size of the US
-Jefferson didn't know if the constitution allowed him to acquire new territory, but Congress assured him it was OK!
Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807
A law passed by Jefferson in 1807 that prohibited all international trade to and from American ports. US was trying to stay neutral in war bt England and France, but both countries were seizing American ships and British were using impressment, the seizure of innocent American men for forced service in British navy. So US decided to punish both England and France with this Act and hoped to persuade Britain and France that America's NEUTRALITY WAS GOOD. But in the end it hurt the US more than England or France
What were causes of War of 1812
(Madison) Madison Makes War
Maritime issues - Britain was coming on to American ships to search for men who had deserted the British navy and they took American and British sailors and forced them to join British navy - practice known as impressment
(example: Chesapeake Leonard Affair)
Manifest Destiny - America felt it was their destiny to control North America, including Canada. If they won the war with Britain, they would get these lands as a concession. Also, felt the British in Canada were helping American Indians push back against western settlement so Americans wanted to stop this support of the Indians.
Political Parties - DRs were in power at the time and they represented people in South and West who wanted to expand the US territory. Congress had a majority of DRs in it and they voted for the War, whereas 0 Federalists voted for the war. DRs who strongly supported war known as War Hawks
What were effects of War of 1812
US Won the War of 1812 against the British. After the war, the country entered a period of strong Nationalism - the economy was growing, white settlement was growing out west, and new states were being admitted to the Union (Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama)
But then ran into problems of Sectionalism bc of differences of opinions about Slavery. North opposed slavery, south in favor of slavery. Issue reached a crisis when Missouri wanted to be admitted to the Union as a slave state - crisis averted with Missouri Compromise.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Marshall Court was during Era of Good Feelings after War of 1812. John Marshall was put in place by FEDERALIST president Adams so Marshall Court was Federalist - he believed in strong Supreme Court, INCREASING POWER OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, and advancing the interests of business (i.e. commerce) and property owners.
Andrew Jackson's presidency
While Andrew Jackson was determined to start a new democracy in America, he ended up not being a very democratic leader.
-vetoed recharter of National Bank
-Indian Removal Act - gave the government the power to move the Indian tribes in the south to the west on the Trail of Tears.
- spoils system - gave all his supporters jobs in government so he was surrounded by loyalty
- ordered force against South Carolina in nullification crisis
--> Considered such tyrant that earned nickname "King Andrew"
Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831
He was a black slave who led a successful slave rebellion in 1831. Rebel slaves killed approximately 60 white people which was the most of any slave uprising. However, afterwards it resulted in very strict oppressive policies against blacks to try to crush any other anti-slavery movements.
(1832 under Jackson)
South Carolina didn't like the tariffs that the Federal government had placed on states, so South Carolina threatened to "nullify" the law and not obey it. Jackson was furious and thought it was treason so he authorized military force against South Carolina. The crisis was averted when Congress passed a compromise tariff.
Election of 1832
Election was between Jackson (Democrat) and Clay (Republican). Main issue in the election was the Central Bank. Jackson opposed it and Clay supported it. This "Bank War" did not give Clay the winning issue he wanted in the election though and instead Jackson won again for his second term
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Brought an official end to Mexican American War. Mexico had to give up their land in the United States, which now includes the land in the states of California, Utah and Nevada, as well as parts of Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico and Arizona. The treaty also established the national border of Mexico at the Rio Grande River. In return, America agreed to pay Mexico $15 million.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Background: a new transcontinental railroad was going to be built and it was decided it should cut through the middle of the country in a new region of the country known as Nebraska. Since the region was north of the Missouri Compromise line the pro-slavery people did not like it bc they thought that Nebraska would ask to be a free state. So the area was divided into two states (Nebraska and Kansas) bc Kansas was more likely to become a slave state. In these 2 regions, the issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty instead of whether it was north or south of latitude 36°30´. Kansas-Nebraska Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude
Dred Scott v Sanford
The Dred Scott case was one of the most controversial court cases in our country's history. Dred Scott was a slave whose master, Sanford, moved from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state. When Sanford died, Dred Scott sued for his freedom since he now lived in a free state. in 1857 the case finally went to the Supreme Court which said that they could not rule on the case because blacks weren't citizens so the constitution did not apply to them (unfair). So Dred Scott was still a slave
-It also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional bc Congress did not have the right to decide the slavery question in the territories.
-The decision made the South happy and infuriated the North.
Rise of Republican Party
On May 20th, 1854, a group of former Whigs met to discuss the possibility of forming a new political party that would focus on preventing the spread of slavery in the Western territories. The idea took off and The Republican Party was born. In November 1860, Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected president over a divided Democratic Party, and six weeks later South Carolina formally seceded from the Union.
Advantages of Union during Civil War
-Better transportation system - north had double the railroad mileage as south and it was more modern than south Transportation advantages:
-North had about 22,000,000 people vs 9,000,000 is Confederacy
-85% of the nations factories were located in the north so could make more war materials
-President Abe Lincoln was a great leader.
Advantages of Confederacy during Civil War
-Confederacy was fighting a defensive war
... so they were more familiar with land
... and north had to travel deep into south area to fight which meant they needed to transport supplies a long way and communicate over longer distances which was more difficult for them
-More enthusiasm for the cause
-commitment to war was strong in the south, whereas in the north the opinion over war was divided
- south was protecting their homes from invading yankees (north)
The rebuilding period (1865-77) that followed the American Civil War during which many efforts were made to correct the inequities of slavery and decisions had to be made about how to readmit the 11 states that had seceded in Civil War.
A government agency established in 1865 by President Lincoln to aid freed slaves in the South during the Reconstruction period.
-Helped African Americans find family members they had been separated from in the war.
-Taught them to read/write
-provided legal assistance
-checked that legal contracts between employers and African Americans were fair
These were restrictive laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War which were designed to restrict black's activities and ensure their availability for employment. Northerners were outraged over these
Lincoln's 10% plan
In 1863, Lincoln proposed this plan as the first comprehensive program for Reconstruction. If 10% of the state's population took an oath of loyalty to the Union and support for emancipation, it could establish a new state government and be officially readmitted to the Union.
-One of the 3 reconstruction amendments
-it abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
- One of the 3 Reconstruction Amendments
- guaranteed African Americans citizenship and gave all citizens equal protections under the law
-One of the 3 Reconstruction Amendments
-Prohibited denying any citizen the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
-gave African Americans right to vote
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