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Chapter 17: Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration
Terms in this set (31)
What was the result of the lack of rainfall in Central Asia?
Not enough rain to support large-scale agriculture.
Animal herding: food, clothing, shelter (yurts)
Migratory patterns to follow pastureland
Small-scale farming, rudimentary artisanry.
What are some characteristics of Central Asian Nomadic Economy?
Trade links between nomadic and settled peoples
Nomads engage in long-distance travel
What are some characteristics of Central Asian Nomadic Society?
Governance is usually clan-based.
Charismatic individuals become nobles, occasionally assert authority.
Unusually fluid status for nobility - hereditary, but could be lost due to incompetence
Advancement for meritorious non-nobles.
What was the role of women in Central Asia?
Women wielded considerable influence as advisers or (occasionally) regents/rulers
What were the characteristics of Nomadic Religion in Central Asia?
Shamans were at the center of pagan worship.
Appeal of Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam, Manichaeism from 6th century C.E.
Development of Turkish script to record religious teachings.
Conversion to Islam in 10th century because of Abbasid influence.
How was Central Asian military organized?
Large confederations under a khan.
Authority extends through tribal elders
Exceptionally strong cavalries - mobility and speed
What was the relationship between the Saljuq Turks and the Abbasid Empire?
8th to 10th centuries, Turkish people were on the border of the Abbasid empire, and served in Abbasid armies.
Turks eventually came to dominate the Abbasid caliphs.
Who was Tughril Beg?
Leader of the Saljuq, recognized as sultan in 1055.
Consolidated his hold on Baghdad, then extended rule to other parts of the empire.
Abbasid caliphs served as figureheads of his authority.
What was the relationship between the Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine Empire?
1071 - Saljuq Turks defeat Byzantine empire at Manzikert, take emperor captive.
Large-scale invasion of Anatolia.
Many conversions to Islam.
Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople in 1453.
Who was Mahmud of Ghazni?
Ghaznavid Turks, from Afghanistan, invades Northern India.
At first for plunder, later to rule.
Northern India completely dominated by the 13th century
Persecuted Buddhists and Hindus.
Who was Chinggis Khan
Born "Temüjin" in 1167
Father was a prominent warrior, poisoned 1177 - family forced into poverty (1177)
Mastered steppe diplomacy, elimination of enemies
Brought all Mongol tribes into one confederation.
1206 - proclaimed Chinggis Khan ("universal ruler")
How were the Mongols organized politically?
Broke up tribal organization
Formed military units from men of different tribes
Promoted officials on basis of merit and loyalty
Established capital at Karakorum
What were the strengths of the Mongolian army?
Mongol population was only one million, but their army numbered 100,000-125,000.
Cavalry, Short Bows were their strengths.
Rewarded enemies who surrendered, cruel to those who fought.
What were the conquests of the Mongols?
Conquest of China by 1220
Conquest of Afghanistan, Persia - Murdered Emissaries, then Chinggis Khan destroys the ruler the following year.
How did the Mongolians prevent future rebellions?
Ravage lands, causing large-scale and long-term devastation.
Who was Khubilai Khan?
Ruled over China from 1264-1294
Grandson of Chinggis Khan
Ruthless warrior, but religiously tolerant.
Hosted Marco Polo.
Established Yuan dynasty (until 1368)
Unsuccessful forays into Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java
Attempted two invasions of Japan (1274, 1281) turned back by typhoons (kamikaze: "divine winds")
What were the conquests of the Golden Horde (Mongolian Khanate)?
Conquest of Russia, 1237-1241
Established tributary relationship to 15th century
Rule over Crimea to late 18th century
Raids into Poland, Hungary, Germany.
What were the results of the Ilkhanate of Persia?
Abbasid empire toppled
Baghdad sacked, 1258 - 200,000 massacred.
Expansions into Syria was checked by Egyptian forces.
What were the results of Mongolian Rule in Persia?
Nomadic conquerors had to learn to rule sedentary societies
Inexperienced, lost control of most lands within a century
Persia: dependence on existing administration to deliver tax revenues.
Matters of governance were left to the Persian bureaucracy.
Eventually assimilated into Islamic lifestyle.
What were the results of Mongolian Rule in China?
Strove to maintain strict separation from the Chinese - intermarriage forbidden, Chinese forbidden to study Mongol language.
Imported administrators from other areas, especially Arabs and Persians.
Tolerated religious freedoms.
What was the relationship between the Mongols and Buddhism?
Shamanism remains popular
Lamaist school of Buddhism (Tibet) gains strength among Mongols.
Lamaism has a large element of magic, similar to shamanism
Lamaism had an ingratiation to the Mongols: Khans as incarnations of Buddha.
How did the Mongols integrate with the West?
Experience with long-distance trade - protection of traveling merchants causes and increase in the volume of trade across central Asia.
Diplomatic missions were protected
Missionary activity increased
Why did the Mongol Empire decline in Persia?
Overspending and poor tax returns from the overburdened peasantry.
Ilkhan attempts to replace precious metal currency with paper in 1290s - failed, forced to rescind.
Last ilkhan dies without heir in 1335, Mongol rule collapses.
Why did the Yuan Dynasty decline in China?
Mongols spent bullion that supported paper currency.
Public lost confidence in paper money, prices rise.
From 1320s - major power struggles.
Bubonic plague spreads 1330-1340s
1368 - Mongols flee peasant rebellion.
Where can we see the Mongol Khanates today?
Khanate of Chaghatai in central Asia - continued threat to China.
Golden Horde in Caucasus and steppes to mid-sixteenth century - continued threat to Russia.
Who was Tamerlane the Conqueror?
Turkish conqueror Timur (Timur the lame - Tamerlane)
United Turkish nomads in khanate of Chaghatai
Major military campaigns - built capital in Samarkand
What led to the collapse of Tamerlane's empire?
Poor governing structure and power struggles divided the empire into four parts.
What empires were influenced by Tamerlane?
Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman.
What was the Ottoman Empire?
Osman, charismatic leader dominating part of Anatolia.
Declares independence from Saljuq sultan, 1299
Attacks Byzantine empire - followers known as Osmanlis (Ottomans)
What were the Ottoman Conquests?
1350s conquests in the Balkans
Local support for Ottoman invasion - peasants were unhappy with fragmented, ineffective Byzantine rule.
Tamerlane defeats Ottoman forces in 1402, but Ottomans recover by 1440s.
Who was Sultan Mehmed II?
"Mehmed the Conqueror"
Conquered Constantinople in 1453
Renamed the city Istanbul, and made it capital of the Ottoman empire.
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