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-broad spectrum
-Similar to PCN/ don't give if PCN allergy
-can cause bleeding w/ other bleeding meds monitor bleeding time (tonsil story)
- Disulfiram reaction (puke & puke & puke) just like Flagyl, the protozoal drug
- Store in fridge & take with food

ALL antibiotics have these side effects

- allergy, hypersensitivity
- suprainfection
- organ (kidney & ear) toxicity
- lowers OC effectiveness


- serious infections like MRSA
- colitis by c-diff
- ototoxicity: get hearing test, tell dr. if hearing getting worse
-given over 60 minutes


- Sumycin, Doxycycline (Vibramycin)
- broad, rocky mtn fever, lyme disease, acne, GI infections by H. Pylori
- bad GI discomfort
- Don't give to kids ≤8; teeth permanently yellow
- Bad photosensitivity- wear sunscreen!
- Can't take with milk, iron, or antacids
- Take on empty stomach with a full glass of water

When is Arythromycin given? What class of drugs is it? worse adverse effect?

When pt allergic to PCN and needs abx. Bacteriostatic inhibitor
bad GI issues


ototoxicity, Renal toxicity, Can't take with PCN at all!
- gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin


-Contains Sulfa
- use for UTI
- Blood problems; get CBC baseline
-photosensitivity wear sunscreen and glasses!
- empty stomach with a full glass of water

Isoniazid (INH)

- take daily for 6-12 months and most likely with other meds too
-worked if 3 neg. sputum cultures, no temp.
- Liver toxicity (hepato) check liver fxn
- Don't take with alcohol (liver fxn remember?)
- Take on empty stomach

Antiviral: Acyclovir, Ganciclovir

Teratogenic preg. X; put on rubber gloves if topical! remember my purple glove experience
-thrombocytopenia, lowers WBC

What class of drugs if Flagyl? What is the weird effect it has?

protozoal. works on C. diff & H. Pylori PUD. Antibuse effect if taken with alcohol

Amphotericin B

anti-fungal. HIGHLY TOXIC
- infusin rxns (fever and chills)
- nephrotoxicity
- hypokalemia
- hepatoxicity
- gynecomasita
- C/I with aminoglycosides (just like PCN)



______ causes malignant hyperthermia. Use ____ to stop it

succinylcholine, Dantrium/Dantrolene.

Morphine adverse effects

-Resp depression
-urinary retention
- Orthostatic HOTN
- Cough suppression

Morphine drug-drug interactions (think of what morphine does to the body)

-CNS depressants
-hypotensive drugs
-opiod antagonists (narcan)
- antihistamines

Morphine patient education re how to take

Take with food for N/V, lie still will help

Opiod withdrawl (stop abruptly is taking ≥6weeks). Is it life-threatening? Will it subside?

sweating, restless, agitated, dilated pupils, tremors, tachycardia, increased BP, N/V, cramps, muscle spasms with kicking movements. NO, subside in 7-10 days.

Migraine medicine & can you take them right after each other?

vasoconstriction, ergot's and triptans. NO, space out ergot and triptan by at least 24 hours.

What pain meds reduces fever?

ibuprofen, tylenol

What pain med reduces platelet aggregation?

NSAIDS (aspirin), reduce thrombus but will bleed easier, too

What pain med reduces fever but has NO anti-inflammatory effect and NO platelet effect?


What can give child Reye's syndrome if they have viral illness?


NSAIDS education w/ how to take med. NSAIDS=

with food, milk, or full glass of water to reduce gastric discomfort. Ibuprofen, Celebrex, Naproxen, Aspirin

acetaminophen max dose/day?

4 grams

When to withhold morphine/opiates

RR <12/min & notify Dr

Triptans & pregnancy

Triptan= Teratogenic. Pregnancy X

Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs name potent toxic drug

DMARDs, 1st choice: methotrexate. Bone Marrow Suppression and Fetal Death

Methotrexate: most concerned about...

bone marrow suppression; Baseline CBC and platelet counts,

What are the s/s of circulatory overload? Seen if giving too much fluids

flush, SOB, cough, heart palpitations

What type of diuretic is not effective in renal failure?

Thiazide - HCTZ

Bumex is ___x more potent than lasix


Thiazide diuretics are good for the ___ and perfect for the eldery __ with HTN

bones, woman

Lasix drug-drug interaction: for manic depressive ppl it'll get to toxic levels in the body

Lithium will become toxic

Signs of hypokalemia

weakness, dysrhymias, increased cardiac sensitivity of digoxin, ileus, Flat T wave

Aspirin toxicity symptoms

Tinnitus, HA

Glucocorticoids adverse effects

potent; suppress adrenal glad fxn, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, if taken with NSAIDS, increase risk of GI ulcer, mask infection and suppress immune system

Reo Pro (-mab) what is it for & adverse effects. What other use does Reo Pro have?

Immunosuppressant for RA, Lupus. toxic to bone marrow, acute pulm edema, infection risk, neoplasia risk. Antiplatelet action.

Classic CNS depressant drug classes and what they're used for

Benzodiazepines, Barbituates. Anxiety.

-lam & -pam are the endings for ________


Benzodiazepine Lorazepam (ativan) increases the possibility of ______.


Benzodiazepine antidote?

Romazicon 1/2 life of 1 hour

Other anxiolytics: and what they're for

-Valproic Acid: anti-seizure, bi-polar
- Phenergan: NV, anxiety, extrapyramidal effects

Amitriptiyline (Elavil) drug drug interactions and how to take med

Anticholinergics b/c TCA already have anticholinergic effects
- void prior to dosing & take at bedtime to sleep through fatigue side effect

MAOI's ___ line of choice for depression b/c of the adverse effects with _____. If eat _____ will cause an _____ ______

2nd or 3rd, tyramine. Tyramine, hypertensive crisis

MAOI adverse effects are related to stimulation of the _____ and include:

SNS, CNS stimulation,
CV-hypertensive crisis, palpitations, Liver toxicity

1st drugs of choice for depression and are equally as effective as _ _ _ but don't see _____ & ____

SSRI, TCA, hypotension and sedation

SSRI drug examples: prototype and 2 popular drugs

Prozac, Celexa, Zoloft

Atypical antidepressant _______ better use in elderly


SSRI uses

Panic attacks
Social phobias

What time of day to give SSRI

Give in the AM for optimal effects

Lithium is used for

Bipolar Disorder

Valproic Acid is used for


Lithium and Diuretics

toxicity if taking diuretics

Anti-depressants have ___________ effects

anticholinergic: dry mouth, constipation, lack of sweat, lack of voiding

Antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds may take _ to __ weeks to take effect

1-3 weeks

all anti-depressants have _____ ______ effect and pt must have their __ monitored

orthostatic hypotension. BP

If patient taking an antihypertensive and just got ordered MAOI, Nardil, Marplan, or Parnate, then...

monitor their BP and call the Dr if theres a significant drop and may need to reduce the anti-htn dosage

Lithium and Triptans? Safe in pregnancy?

NO both lithium and triptans are teratogenic

Therapeutic Levels of Lithium

0.4-1.0 mEq/L. Take 2-3 times a day.

Chemotherapy Agents, name as much as you can!

neosar (cyclophosphamide), methotrexate, doxorubicin, tamoxifen

Cyclosporine is an _________

immunosuppressive drug

PTT lab value should stay at >_________ for what medication? What is the therapeutic PTT level?

2 times the baseline, Heparin. 60-80 seconds

To prevent HIT, stop heparin at platelet count of <________


How to inject heparin, starting from drawing up

draw up with 22-25 ga needle from vial, then use 25 or 26 ga to put into abdomen 2in from umbilicus.

Drug to help with heparin overdose

Protamine Sulfate

Warfarin C/I (2)

liver failure (no clotting proteins will lead to too much bleeding), alcoholism (additive risk of bleeding)

Lab values to watch with Warfarin

-PT (18-24 sec)
-INR (2-3)

patient education with aspirin (food-wise)

take with food

Prevention of strokes, MI, and reinfarctions can be accomplished with low-dose aspirin of ___mg

81 mg

Thrombolytic drug prototype

Streptokinase, dissolves clots that have already been formed

When should thrombolytics, streptokinase, be given?

4-6 of onset of symptoms

Do/Do not mix any medications in IV with thrombolytic agents


What medications are usually given with thrombolytics, streptokinase? (think when this drug is used)

Beta-blockers to lower myocardial oxygen consumption
H2 antagonists like Zantac or
PPI like Prilosec to prevent GI bleeding

Ferrous Sulfate use

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Ferrous Sulfate Patient Education (adverse effects, among other things)

-GI distress however can't take with food b/c that will decrease it's absorption greatly
-Teeth staining; drink w/ straw or dilute in water or juice and rinse mouth after swallowing
- Don't take with tetracycline, or antacids
-Poop will be a harmless dark green or black color
- Drink more water and exercise more to counter constipation effects

why would a patient be given vitB12-cyanocobalamin

pernicious anemia, partial removal of stomach

What vit/min masks the signs of Vit b12 deficiency?

folic acid

E-alfa, hematopoietic growth factor, is dependent on adequate levels of ___ ___ & ___

Iron, Folic acid, Vitamin B12

In giving whole blood, what do you do before and during?

obtain vital signs, stay with the client and monitor VS q5 min for 15 minutes

When giving whole blood, what do you need the 2nd person for?

check identification of the donor blood and recipient, blood compatibility and expiration date.

Only give blood products with what type of IV fluid?

0.9% NS. anything else will cause lysis of the RBC

Bronchodilator albuterol: therapeutic uses

Prevention of asthma attack
long-term control of asthma
Short acting treatment for asthma attack

Bronchodilator side effects; overall stimulation of the B2-adrengeric receptors...

tachycardia, angina

How to use a MDI (metered dose inhaler)

shake the inhaler, 1/2-2 in away from mouth and tilt head back slightly and open mouth wide. press inhaler same time you breath in deep. Hold breath for 10 seconds. Wait 1 full minute b4 another puff.

When prescribed a beta2-agonist and an glucocorticoid, which do they inhale first?

the beta-2 agonist promotes bronchodilation and enhances absorption of the glucocorticoid

What does the med theophylline do? short term or long-term control?

relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and does bronchodilation. Long-term control of asthma attacks.

Inhaled atrovent what class of medication is it

anti-cholinergic used for long term control of asthma

Glucocorticoids for asthma are used for _____ and oral glucocorticoids are only give for ___-___ days

long-term control of asthma attacks. 3-10 days

Codeine is used for ___. classification of drug?

chronic, non-productive cough. it's an opiod.

Codeine adverse effects

-CNS effects
-GI distress take with food and increase fluids!

Mucomyst (Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic and it's therapeutic effect is to:

make nasal and bronchial secretions watery to enhance their passage

Mucomyst's adverse effects are: (think of its effect on mucus)

aspiration and bronchospasm

What does Mucomyst acetylcysteine smell like? How to take it?

rotten eggs. dilute with water or juice

What do nasal decongestants like phenylephrine do to the body?

CNS stimulation b/c they stimulate alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.
Vasoconstriction-watch HTN and CAD patients!

How fast do you infuse K chloride in IV pump?

no faster than 10 mEq/hr

You should dilute ___and give no more than 40 mEq/L to prevent vein irritation

KCl. remember in clinical he said it was really burning his vein.

SERMS raloxifene is used for _______

osteoporosis and prevent bone fractures

Raloxifiene can give the women ___ ____ and increase the risk for _ _ _s

hot flashs, DVTs

Bisphosphonates, like Fosamax or Boniva

sit or stand for 30 minutes after taking
-have enough vit d and calcium

Neostigmine for myasthenia gravis; adverse reaction


Dilantin (phenytoin) and adverse effects

Anti-seizure; blurred vision, bad rash, beardy chesty, teratogenesis, dysrhythmias

Which vitamin promotes iron absorption but increases its side effects?

Vit C

Carbamazipine (Tegretol) 1) Use 2) cannot be used with _____ ______ (all of these meds can't)

-oral contraceptives

PTU is given for ______ & clinically see its working by:

lowered Hr, weight gain, lowered T4 levels

-opril -april

ACE inhibitor

All ACE inhibitors cause: (2)

dry, persistant, irritating, cough and increases body's uptake of K causing hyperkalemia

70% of patients on an SSRI experience _____ ______

sexual dysfunction

Fentanyl is used for:

severe cancer pain, will cause constipation

____ will increase the toxicity of Lithium

NSAIDS, tylenol is NOT an NSAID

Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitor use



Ulcers, GERD,

Bupropion (Zyban) to help stop smoking has what action on the CNS system?


Therapeutic level of Digoxin?


Gold Salts for RA toxicity. RA drugs dosing

rash, sores in mouth, intense itching
- once-a-week at first then down to once-a-month

HBA1c goal for DM


Amitryptoline (Elavil) has _______ effects. What is Elavil drug class?

anticholinergics. TCA

Lithium adverse effects

hand tremors, thirst, GI upset

Digoxin toxicty can occur in the presence of ________ which can happen with what medication?

Hypokalemia, Lasix


Aspirin, celebrex, ibuprofen, naproxen

Neostigmine, for myasthenia gravis, side effects. Medication given to counteract neostigmine?

cholinergic effects: high GI motility, bradycardia, urinary urgency.

Dilantin (phenytoin) is used for _____ and it's side effects are

seizures, double vision, hirsuitism, skin rash, teratogenesis, dysrhythmias,

Dilantin (phenytoin) cannot be used with what two other drugs?

OC's and Warfarin

Beta1 heart meds are used to treat

Heart Failure and Cardiac arrest

Alpha1 agonsts like epinepherine is used for __

raising BP

Beta1 activation in the heart can cause ________


Dopamine is used for ____ and _____ ____

Heart Failure

Multiple drug interactions with Heart medications:

MAOI, TCA enhance epinephrine effect (vasocontriction)
- Phentolamine -A blocker
- Propanolol B blocker

Alpha Adrenergic Blockers (minipress) all have a first-dose ____________ ___________ effect and what OTC analgesics counteract the anti-hypertensive effect?

orthostatic hypotension b/c venous dilation

Clonidine (catapress) does what to the pt's BP and CO?

decrease BP and CO

Clonidine (catapress) and ______ (alpha blocker) counteract each other

Prazosin (Minipress)

Which Beta blocker is non-selective and causes bronchoconstriction, too?


-pril ACE inhibitors block Ang I from becoming II resulting in:

vasodilation, excretion of water & sodium, retain K,

Worse Adverse Effect seen with -prils?



Ang II receptor blockers




H2 receptor antagonists


Cholesterol drugs

-pine, -amil (verapamil: non-selective)

Ca channel blocker

Cardiac Glycoside drug


The main difference between ARB's and ACE inhibitros is that ______ and _______ are not side effects of ARB

- hyperkalemia

Ca Channel Blocker (-ipine/-amil) vasodilate and adverse effects (2)

- reflex tachycardia
- Peripheral edema

Dysrhythmias are seen as a ________ QRS interval


Action of Digoxin (2)

increase myocardial contraction
Lower Heart Rate giving ventricles more time to fill

The most dangerous adverse effect of Digoxin is it's ability to create ________, particularly in patients who have _______

- hypokalemia

ACE inhibitors (-prils), ARBs (-sartan), Thiazide & looop diuretics increase the likelihood of ________ and it's level should be monitored when taking _______ with these meds.


Cimetidine (tagamet) is for


cyclosporine is an


Clonidine (catapress) is a alpha agonist and has what two adverse effects

dry mouth
drowsiness & sedation

Ca Channel Blockers adverse effects are related to __________ & the immediate-acting drugs can cause _____ ________

vasodilation: headache, dizziness, edema, flushing
-reflex tachycardia

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