Terms in this set (115)
All education comes with a
built-in point of view
What is a worldview? Give examples of analogies describing worldview.
A worldview is a set of assumptions about the basic makeup of the world. A worldview is a pair of glasses through which we view our world. A worldview is the picture on the puzzle box of our lives.
What are the 3 acts of a Christian worldview?
What do we know about creation?
God created everything, called his creation good, and made humans in His image and enabled them to delight in creation and be sub-creators.
What do we know about the fall?
Humans have free will and chose to disobey God. Sin corrupted the good creation.
What do we know about redemption?
God is working to redeem His creation. Jesus came to take away sin. Eventually God's reign will be established throughout the entire universe. For now, we carry God's redemptive activity in all of creation.
According to Ostrander, "Worldviews are _______ and ________."
What does it mean that our worldviews are communal and open-ended?
Our worldviews are constantly subject to change and reconsideration as we meet new people and have new experiences. We rely on others to help us revise our worldviews.
According to the first chapter of College, a key purpose of college is
to challenge students to examine their worldviews
Describe what Ostrander meant by the crossword puzzle analogy. How does this relate to college?
Our assorted beliefs are like answers to particular crossword puzzle clues, which are often uncertain. Our worldview is like the entire crossword puzzle formed by these interlocking, mutually-supporting beliefs. Just like a crossword puzzle should be completed in pencil so it can be changed, we should be flexible to changing some of our beliefs. However, some answers are certain and may be written in pen, just like some of our beliefs are certain and should be written in pen and not changed.
devotion to pleasure
A mature Christian worldview, according to Ostrander, is
open to revision
recitation instructional method
colonial American college teaching (pedagogical) method consisting of reciting prof's lectures to tutors
What was significant about the way that the Puritans saw education?
The Puritans made no distinction between "Christian" and "secular" subjects.
founded first Christian universities in colonial American; left the church of England; associated with Jean Calvin; modern-day Presbyterians
purpose of Ivy League universities
founded as Christian universities to train Christian leaders
For much of the 1600s, _______ was the only institution in colonial higher education
What was Harvard's original motto?
Harvard's original motto was Christo et Ecclesiae, which means "for Christ and the Church." It was written on the seal of Harvard in 1700
in loco parentis
"in place of parents" --> code of conduct
Old-Time Colleges operated in place of parents by strictly regulating students' lives through many rules about how to live, study, relax, play, and worship.
"American colleges in the colonial era were almost exclusively begun by ________ with the explicit purpose of training Christian leaders for the _________ and ________"
Protestants; church; society
2nd Great Awakening
A religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States which led to Protestants establishing hundreds of Old-Time Colleges to boast about their towns' significance
-colleges established by Puritans that put Christ into all areas and all subjects and used a balanced education to make mature Christians
-strict rules led to rebellion
-almost all colleges were from white middle-class Protestants
Explain "Christian ethos" in respect to the Old-Time Colleges in the 1800s
The Old-Time Colleges in the 1800s emphasized Christian ethos by focusing on creating mature young Christians who had taken a balanced assortment of courses rather than imparting students with particular knowledge.
What was the emphasis of coursework during the colonial era?
The coursework placed a heavy emphasis on Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and rhetoric, and to a lesser extent theology, ethics, politics, mathematics, astronomy, and history.
Curriculum based on of grammar, logic, and rhetoric; curriculum of Old-Time colleges
passed by Congress in 1862, this law made government funds available for states to establish public universities that would advance practical education in the areas of agriculture and mechanics
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564); Puritans who founded first Christian universities left church of England and associated with Calvin
German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation; read the Bible and realized he was sinful but God offers redemption through faith (he made his faith real)
no tobacco, alcohol, extramarital sex, dancing > 2.5 minutes
Who was the Dutch man that catalyzed the revival of Christian higher education, and what was his approach to learning (what model did he use)?
Abraham Kuyper (nineteenth-century Dutch theologian and politician) used the integration model of faith and learning to urge Christians to integrate Christian truths and learning into all academic disciplines and curriculum.
"There is not one square inch on the whole plain of human existence over which Christ, who is Lord over all, does not proclaim, 'This is Mine!'"
Christian College Coalition
several colleges joined with Calvin College to form the Christian College Coalition, and Kuyper's philosophy spread throughout American Christian higher education
modern educator who put in words the idea of putting the Bible in all subjects: "In Christian education, nothing matters but the kingdom of Jesus Christ; but because of the kingdom, everything else matters." The Puritans would affirm these words.
a Dutch Reformed school in Michigan, inspired in the mid-twentieth century by Kuyper's educational approach to integrating Christian truths in all areas
main group of Puritans landed in New England
Puritans founded Harvard
Connecticut Puritans, fearing that Harvard was departing from its Christian moorings, established Yale
Roman Catholic immigrants built Georgetown University
Princeton College experienced 6 separate riots
Darwin's theory of evolution
Congress passed the Morrill Act
Harvard president Charles Eliot discards the college's traditional classical curriculum and introduced the elective system
student enrollment of Council for Christian Colleges and Universities increased 70% from 1990-2004, far outpacing the growth of American higher education in general
Which man was partly responsible for the "secularization of the university"?
Charles Darwin (and his theory of evolution)
his theory of evolution in 1859 contributed to the shift of science from nature being supernatural to nature being natural
What does Ostrander mean by "the specialization of universities"?
As universities secularized, they strove to use specialized departments to give students majors and teach students how to be competent in the professional world.
What are the two general responses that Christian colleges assumed to counteract the "secularization of universities"?
Christian colleges tried to keep up with the secular universities by abandoning or obscuring their religions identity and getting rid of their Christian rhetoric. However, Catholic universities and Protestant universities associated with a denomination were not affected by the secularization. Conservatives created Bible colleges as an attempt to preserve Christian education, but they generally only taught future church workers.
Ezra Cornell, Leland Stanford, Cornelius Vanderbilt
wealthy men produced by the industrial society of the late-1800s who poured huge sums of money into universities, both as a means of boosting their own stature and to generate the scientific discoveries and technological know-how needed by the new industrial society
Harvard president who discarded the college's traditional classical curriculum and introduced the elective system in 1870
nineteenth-century Bostonian remarked about the professors in his day: "no one took Harvard College seriously"
What are some qualities of modern Christian colleges?
Modern Christian colleges have professors who care about students' spiritual and academic development. The rules and restrictions are less. Instead of operating in place of parents, these colleges strive to help students mature and own their faith. They also have a more flexible course of study that combines a Christian liberal arts core with a professionally-oriented major.
Through the doctrine of ___________, Christians are able to see the ____________ good of learning, and value education for its own sake
intrinsic value of learning
education is good for its own sake; college prepares us to image God
What are the 4 implications of Genesis 1 for education?
1. we know God better by studying His creation
2. we are called to care for and develop God's creation
3. the study of creation includes the insights of non-believers
4. we glorify God by taking delight in His creation
What does it mean that we know God better by studying His creation?
God expresses Himself in what He has made. When we study God's creation, we understand and appreciate the beauty and power of God's creation and love God more deeply.
What does it mean that we are called to care for and develop God's creation?
God created us to rule over creation and develop and transform it.
How does the study of creation include the insights of non-believers?
All truth is God's truth and all aspects of creation are worth studying, even non-Christian aspects, because God's grace is spread throughout creation.
How do we glorify God by taking delight in His creation?
Participating in God's creation also involves delighting in it and enjoying it, and that brings pleasure to God.
Distinguish between the instrumental value and intrinsic value of a college education.
The instrumental value of a college education is preparation for a satisfying career. A college education has intrinsic value because God created all things and created us in his image to explore and delight in his creation.
in the image of God
What does it mean that we are imago dei?
we were created to work, create, assess and approve our creation, rest, commune with one another, etc.
What does Ostrander mean by "living more largely"?
"Living more largely" means that we are called to be God's image-bearers. We often live constricted lives, but we should live larger and look for fresh ways to experience the richness and goodness of God's creation. We "image" God better when we engage deeper in His creation.
God's command to humans to reproduce and subdue the earth; God created humans not only to enjoy his creation, but to develop it and transform it
God's way of partly stopping corruption so that human life can continue. Common grace explains why unbelievers often show good behavior--better than that of some Christians; God's grace exists in all aspects of creation, and the effects of that grace exists even after the fall
a teaching; a system of beliefs
belief that God planned the fall
belief that God merely foresaw the fall
What are the two results of Adam and Eve's disobedience?
Their disobedience corrupted human relationships and altered human society. It also altered the natural world by making cultivation difficult and childbearing painful.
doctrine of the fall
the fall distorted everything; because of the fall, all of creation is not the way God planned it; nevertheless, the goodness of God's creation persists
What tendency do Christians have in regard to the fallen parts of creation?
"Christians have demonstrated an unfortunate tendency to identify evil with certain parts of creation itself (rather than as a corruption of creation) and thus avoid them altogether." 65
What are 2 purposes of Christian higher education in regard to the fall?
-"to develop the ability to recognize the effects of the Fall on creation" 67-68
-to produce "mature, thinking students who can evaluate the world around them from a Christian perspective"
not just peace, but universal flourishing, wholeness, and delight, where natural needs are satisfied and natural gifts are given, all under God's love
Identify and discuss what the doctrine of the Fall does and does not imply for Christian higher education.
The Fall does not imply that all creation is corrupt; some goodness still exists in all parts of creation itself. Higher education helps us understand the subtle, complex, and systemic effects of the Fall on our world. College life demonstrations an intermingling of the good of creation with the corruption of the Fall.
What does the fall necessitate?
careful study of the world
What is "systemic evil" and how does it relate to Christian higher education?
Systemic evil is evil that completely covers the whole world. Sin works its way into every aspect of our lives and make horrible things seem normal, which means that we need higher education to help us to carefully study creation to recognize this evil.
What is the difference between "posture" and "gestures" according to Andy Crouch?
Posture is the body's default position, the one that we take when we aren't paying attention to it. Gestures are little things we do that are repeated over and over, and can become postures.
What might flexibility in approaching an object of study entail?
consumption, critique, copying, condemning
List and describe Crouch's four gestures. Be able to recognize examples of these.
1. condemnation, like conservatives who condemned secular culture (Hitler).
2. critique, like those who tried to analyze all secular products from a Christian perspective (movies).
3. copy, which is when Christians try to make Christian products mirror secular products (Shakespeare).
4. consumption, which is when Christians merely consume and absorb secular products (movies).
Part three of the story is that "God in Christ is working to _______ all of his creation and _________ it to the way it is supposed to be"
The key act in the biblical drama of redemption is the
incarnation of Jesus Christ
How is God redeeming creation?
God is working through Christ to redeem all of creation and restore it to how it was supposed to be.
How can Christians help redeem creation?
Christian scholarship equips Christians to participate in the redemption of all creation.
How does Ostrander redefine the "Kingdom of God"?
The kingdom of God is a condition, not a location; It is the active exercise of God's kingly office.
Discuss and evaluate what Ostrander says about a "sacred/secular" dichotomy
Our sacred and secular lives are not separate. Every part of creation involves extending God's reign over all of creation. The sacred Kingdom of God and the secular kingdom of the world get injected into every aspect of our lives.
How should Christians view the sacred and secular parts of their lives?
For Christians, there should be no separation of secular and sacred parts of life.
How does Christian college aid redemption?
A main purpose of Christian higher education is to equip students to function as effective agents of redemption. throughout all of creation.
Why is traditional evangelism now less effective?
Contemporary Americans' "basic understanding of the concept of truth has changed," so traditional evangelism tools like the "Romans Road" are less effective.
Name and describe the 3 ways that the doctrine of redemption relates to education
1. Smart Evangelism: A Christian college education will help you to become an empathetic, insightful, and interesting person that can spread the Gospel effectively and talk to modern unbelievers.
2. Redeeming Your Discipline: We can redeem the cultural products that have been corrupted by the Fall by doing our discipline well and doing it for God's glory.
3. Redeeming the World Through Your Discipline:
How can we participate in the redemption of creation?
-through "smart evangelism"
-by embodying it in the work we do in our scholarly discipline
-by using our expertise to help fix its brokenness
Identify and describe the 3 things integration is not
1. Integration is not simply a matter of encouraging personal relationships between professors and students, although this is important.
2. Integration is not setting a spiritual atmosphere by praying before class, although prayer is good and can focus students' minds. Integration is not cultivating a pious atmosphere outside of class while encouraging rigorous academics in the classroom, therefore separating religious life from other life.
3. Integration is not including religious topics within one's area of study; religious and secular material should be studied.
What does the integration of faith and learning mean?
relating one's Christian worldview to an academic discipline
What are the levels of integration?
What is motivational integration?
when a Christian worldview motivates us to learn and apply a positive attitude toward the subject of study
What is intellectual/foundational integration?
when we consciously relate our Christian worldview assumptions to the area of study
What is applied/ethical integration?
applying the knowledge from a particular discipline to the world in a way that furthers God's redemptive work
What is the difference between implicit and explicit integration?
the more that a discipline deals with the nature of human beings, their cultural products, and the nature of ultimate reality, the more explicit the integration
-implicit integration exists in mathematics and natural sciences
-explicit integration exists in social sciences and the humanities
What is an "integrative question"?
a question that must be answered with reference to both the discipline itself and a Christian worldview
What is the difference between a liberal arts core and major classes?
A liberal arts core is a general education or the core curriculum. Major classes provide specific knowledge or skills that are needed for a particular profession.
What are the 2 goals of a liberal arts core?
-connect NON-SPECIALIST to historical conversation about major issues of that field
-impact WHO WE ARE as people rather than just what we do careerwise
What is a "flat world"?
advances in technology and communications have produced a flat, rapidly-changing world in which goods and workers go global and the typical corporation is multi-national
What was the Industrial Age?
colleges taught people to function in the industrial society
What was the Information Age?
people were taught to be knowledge workers, and thinking and analysis was emphasized
What are the values of the current "conceptual age"?
In the Conceptual Age, technology is prevalent, as well as the desire for things to look good. New technologies are replacing knowledge workers, and creators and designers have the highest value. As a result, higher education must currently teach students to learn and to be creative, to have passion, curiosity, and intuition, and to be ready to adapt.
Why will "right-brainers rule the world"?
The right side of the brain synthesizes information, sees the big picture, envisions new scenarios, and empathizes with others, which is necessary for our conceptual age in which creators, designers, and empathizers command the highest value
What are Ostrander's 3 pieces of advice for college students?
1. Don't Stress Out Over a Major: Students should be more concerned with developing overall qualities, a knowledge base, and transferrable skills than worrying about a major because we can't predict how society and our careers will change.
2. Take the Liberal Arts Core Seriously: Employers want graduates with a broad education. A broad education is also beneficial in a society with an ever-changing economy.
3. Go Global: Employers want graduates who can understand and collaborate with people from different cultures. A valuable undergraduate education includes significant time spent in another culture. Global education helps you to think holistically and creatively and function cross-culturally.
How does Ostrander define a good education?
a robust, globally-focused Christian education centered on the liberal arts is truly good and good for you
an attempt to reawaken the evangelical faith
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
stresses the importance of personal conversion and faith as the means of salvation
What are the distinctive traits of JBU early on?
Affordable, conservative religion, strict rules, fundamentalist, emphasized vocational education, poor sanitation and heating and grounds, poor academic quality and inexperienced professors.
How has JBU has evolved throughout its history?
Academic conditions improved, facilities improved, shift from fundamentalism to evangelicalism, diversity increases, enrollment increases, more programs (more degrees and majors and study abroad), integrated faith and learning, move away from vocational education.
What characterized JBU's move in the 1940s to the 1950s when it moved from fundamentalism to evangelicalism?
despite the founder's conservatism on certain behavioral issues, John Brown University migrated toward the more inclusive, evangelical wing of conservative Protestantism in the 1940s and 1950s
How did Bob Jones react to revivalist Billy Graham's 1959 visit?
sent university officials a stinging letter of rebuke
What activities were restricted in the early days?
Rules prohibited bad habits, bad conversation, dancing, cards, makeup, tobacco, liquor, and bad words. Time was rigidly controlled and students couldn't leave campus. Dating was supervised.
What is the educational background of John Brown, Sr.?
John Brown had to quit school at age 11 to work full-time helping to support his family.