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ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and to learn from one's experiences

intelligence quotient

IQ (by Binet and Simon)
measured aptitude for learning, not achievement
focused on mental age
Ratio IQ and Deviation IQ

Ratio IQ

mental age divided by chronological age times 100
not as useful for adults as kids
in reference to age group and how rest of population did

Deviation IQ

a stat obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100

IQ tests can tell us...

academic performance
occupational status (higher IQ, higher job status)
health, wealth, attitudes, basic cognitive abilities


Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
most widely used IQ test
revision of Standford-Binet test

factor analysis

a statistical technique that explains a large number of underlying factors

two-factor theory of intelligenc

(Spearman) every task requires a combination of generla ability (g) and skills that are specific to the task (s)

primary mental abilities

(Thurstone) word fluency, verbal comprehension, number, space, memory, perceptual speed, reasoning

three level hierarchy

general factor (like Spearman's g)
specific factors (like Spearman's s)
group factors (like Thurstone's primary abilities)

general intelligence, followed by middle-level abilities, followed by specific factors

data-based approach

look at responses to intelligence tests and construct factors from there
suggests 8 independent middle-level abilities

Gardner's 8 types of intelligence

verbal-linguistic - "word smart" (production and use of language)
logical-mathematical- "logic smart" (problem-solving and scientific thinking)
visual-spatial - "picture smart" (spatial configuration; artists, architects)
bodily-kinesthetic - "body smart" (body; surgeons, athletes)
musical-kinesthetic - "music smart" (music)
interpersonal - "people smart" (between people; sensitivity to others)
intrapersonal - "self smart" (within - understanding self)
naturalistic - "nature smart" (patterns in universe)

heritability coefficient

(h2) stat that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by differences in their genes

shared environment

those environmental factors that are experienced by all revelant members of a household

unshared environment

those environmental factors that are not experienced by all relevant members of a household

genetic influences

genes impact intelligence
identical twins tend to have very similar intelligence (100% common genes)
fraternal twins are less strongly correlated (50% common genes)

intelligence tends to...

decrease over the life span and increase across generations
relative intelligence stays fairly constant; absolute intelligence may decline
education increase intelligence

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