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135 terms

Meteorology final

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A sea breeze circulation will reverse direction and become a land breeze...
once per day
In summer, during the passage of a sea breeze, which of the following is not usually observed?
A drop in relative humidity
Clouds and precipitation are frequently found on the downwind side of a large lake. This would indicate that the air on the downwind side is
converging and rising.
During the summer along the coast, a sea breeze is usually strongest and best developed...
in the afternoon
The winter monsoon in eastern and southern Asia is characterized by...
dry weather and winds blowing from land to sea.
While fly fishing in a mountain stream, you notice that the wind is blowing upstream. From this you might deduce that the wind is a
valley breeze
Surface low pressure becomes best developed over the Asian continent in the...
Summer
Cumulus clouds that appear above isolated mountain peaks are often the result of...
valley breezes
A katabatic wind is a ____, ____ wind.
cold, downslope
Strong Santa Ana winds develop in Los Angeles during the fall when a ____ pressure center forms to the
____ of Los Angeles over the Great Basin.
high, northeast
Another name for a small, rotating whirlwind observed at the surface is...
Dust Devil
In terms of the three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near...
30° latitude and the polar regions
The average winds aloft are strongest in
the winter
Along a north-south oriented coastline in the Southern Hemisphere, upwelling would occur when winds blow from the
south
Upwelling occurs along the northern California coast because
winds cause surface waters to move away from the coast
In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents in the Atlantic and the Pacific move in a generally circular
pattern. The direction of this motion is ____ in the Atlantic and ____ in the Pacific.
clockwise, clockwise
If huge waves pound against the beach communities of Southern California for several days during clear, calm weather, it is a good bet that:
the winds are strong somewhere out over the Pacific Ocean
Suppose a west wind of 20 knots blows over a coastal region which is densely covered in shrubs. If this same wind moves out over the middle of a large calm lake, its speed and direction would probably be:
greater than 20 knots and more northwesterly
A good source region for an air mass would be
generally flat areas of uniform composition with light surface winds.
A warm, moist air mass that forms over water is called
mT
What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, muggy summer weather in the eastern half of the United
States?
mT
In Southern California, which air mass is mainly responsible for heavy rains, flooding in low-lying valleys, and
melting of snow at high elevations?
mT
Record breaking low temperatures are associated with which air mass?
cP
During the spring, which air mass would most likely bring record-breaking high temperatures to the eastern
half of the United States?
mT
Clear sunny days with very cold nights would be associated with what type of air mass?
cP
Cumuliform cloud development would be most likely in which of the following?
cP air mass moving over warm water
The rising of warm air up and over cold air is called
overrunning
According to the model of the life cycle of a wave cyclone, the storm system is normally most intense
when the system first becomes occluded.
In the polar front theory of a developing wave cyclone, energy for the storm is usually derived from all but which one of the following.
heat energy stored in the ground
If the flow of air into a surface low pressure area is greater than the divergence of air aloft, the surface
pressure in the center of the low will
increase
Rossby waves are also known as
longwaves
Atmospheric shortwaves usually move ____ than longwaves, and ____ when they move through a longwave
ridge.
faster, weaken
The only indication on the station model of past weather conditions is the
a. temperature
pressure tendency
In the Southern Hemisphere,
d. precipitation associated with warm fronts tends to be gentle and prolonged
A prog is
d. a forecast chart that shows the atmosphere at some future time.
Which of the following explain why it is possible to see clouds on satellite photographs taken at night?
d. the clouds emit infrared light
Which of the following would probably be used to infer cloud altitude on a satellite photograph?
b. intensity of infrared emissions
A persistence forecast could be quite accurate when
b. you are positioned in the middle of a large, stationary air mass.
A weather forecast that predicts that the future weather will be the same as the present weather is called
c. a persistence forecast.
The forecasting technique that produces several versions of a forecast model, each beginning with slightly different weather information to reflect errors in the measurements, is called
d. ensemble forecasting.
A forecast of an extended period of dry weather would be made for a region beneath
d. an upper-level ridge.
By examining a surface map, the movement of a surface low pressure area can be predicted based upon the
all of these
Suppose it is warm and raining, and a cold front is moving toward your location. Directly behind the cold front
it is cold and snowing. Still further behind the front the weather is cold and clearing. If the front is scheduled to
pass your area in 6 hours, a persistence forecast for your area for 12 hours from now would be
warm and raining
At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum?
When air temperature is at its highest
Evaporative coolers are primarily used in climates where the summers are
hot and dry.
Dew is most likely to form on
Clear, Calm nights
For frozen dew to form
all of these.
Frost forms when
all of these. (objects on the ground cool below the dew point temperature. the dew point is 32° F or below.
water vapor changes into ice without first becoming a liquid)
If fog is forming at Denver, Colorado, and the wind is blowing from the east, then the fog is most likely
upslope fog
Steam fog is actually a form of
evaporation (mixing) fog.
On a cold, calm autumn morning the formation of fog above a relatively warm lake would most likely be
steam fog
The term "cirro" tells you something about cloud ____.
altitude
At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3000 m (10,000 feet) above the
surface?
Barrow, Alaska
A "mackerel sky" describes what type of cloud?
cirrocumulus
A low, lumpy cloud layer that appears in rows, patches or rounded masses would be classified
stratocumulus
An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with
cumulonimbus
Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, without shading, usually white in color and sometimes of
a silky appearance are
d. cirrus.
The cloud with the greatest vertical growth is
cumulonimbus
Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?
cirrostratus
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ____ clouds.
a. nimbostratus
Which below is not a way in which a contrail may form?
c. due to heating of the air by the engine exhaust
If all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the ground, the globe would be covered
with about ____ of water.
1 inch
Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air?
relative humidity
The rate at which the actual air temperature changes with increasing height above the surface is referred to as
the
a. environmental lapse rate.
The most latent heat would be released in a ____ parcel of ____ saturated air.
a. rising, warm
A conditionally unstable atmosphere is ____ with respect to unsaturated air and ____ with respect to saturated
air.
stable,unstable
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is
absolutely stable
The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to the fact that
d. latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air.
When the environmental lapse rate decreases more rapidly with height than the dry adiabatic rate, the
atmosphere is
b. absolutely unstable.
An inversion represents an extremely stable atmosphere because air that rises into the inversion will
eventually become ____ and ____ dense than the surrounding air.
d. colder, more
Which cloud type would most likely form in absolutely stable air?
stratus
Which of the following is not an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence
process?
c. the number of ice crystals in the cloud
The name commonly used to describe the drier region observed on the downwind (leeward) side of a
mountain range is
c. rain shadow.
During the ice crystal process of rain formation
b. ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets.
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled
liquid droplet is called
accretion
The falling ice crystal below is colliding with supercooled water droplets which stick and freeze. This process
is called
riming
Which of the following might be mistaken for hail?
graupel
In the winter you read in the newspaper that a large section of the Midwest is without power due to downed
power lines. Which form of precipitation would most likely produce this situation?
c. freezing rain
Which of the following statements is not correct?
Ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei.
If the earth's gravitational force were to increase, atmospheric pressure at the ground would
increase
Sea-level pressure values generally fall in the range
d. 950 to 1050 mb.
The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather map is
millibars
Pressure changes
b. more rapidly in the vertical direction than in the horizontal.
A ____ usually indicates clearing weather or fair weather.
b. steadily rising pressure
The amount of pressure change that occurs over a given horizontal distance is called the
c. pressure gradient.
Which statement below is not correct concerning the Coriolis force?
It is strongest at the equator
The force that would cause a stationary parcel of air to begin to move horizontally is called the
b. pressure gradient force.
On an upper-level chart the wind tends to blow
b. parallel to the isobars or contours.
When the wind blows in a more or less west to east direction, the wind flow pattern is called
zonal
48. Upper-level winds can turn to the right or the left. The turning is caused by
d. either the pressure gradient or the Coriolis force.
The wind around a surface low pressure center in the Southern Hemisphere blows
d. clockwise and inward toward the center.
Suppose that the winds aloft are geostrophic and blowing from the north. With the same orientation of isobars
at the surface, the winds would blow from the
northwest
In a volume of air near the earth's surface, ____ occupies 78% and ____ nearly 21%.
a. nitrogen, oxygen
The only substance near the earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid, and a
gas.
water
Which of the following greenhouse gases is also capable of destroying ozone in the stratosphere?
d. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
The so-called "ozone hole" is observed above
c. the continent of Antarctica.
Inches of mercury (Hg) are commonly used units of
b. atmospheric pressure
At jet aircraft cruising altitude (33,000 ft. or about 10 km) you are
b. near the top of the troposphere.
In a temperature inversion
a. air temperature increases with increasing height.
The rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude is known as the
b. lapse rate.
Which of the following is found at the highest altitude?
c. the top of the stratosphere
The temperature of the tropopause
b. is much colder than the temperature at the earth's surface.
The wind direction is
a. the direction from which the wind is blowing.
Where warm surface air is replacing cold air, the boundary separating the different bodies of air is termed a
warm front
Which of the following is most likely associated with fair weather?
a. high pressure area
Which of the following cities is in the middle latitudes?
Chicago, Illinois
A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is ____ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale.
b. larger than
The temperature scale that sets freezing of pure water at 32°.
Fahrenheit
The horizontal transport of any atmospheric property by the wind is called
Advecture
Heat transferred upward from the surface of the moon can take place by
radiation
Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves is called
radiation
Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light?
e. ultraviolet radiation
The earth emits radiation with greatest intensity at
infrared wavelengths
If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would
a. shift to a shorter wavelength.
At which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity?
105 F
The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the
c. absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere.
Of the gases listed below, which is not believed to be responsible for enhancing the earth's greenhouse effect?
b. molecular oxygen (O2)
Which of the following is an incorrect identification?
c. black body - selective absorber
The atmosphere near the earth's surface is "heated from below." Which of the following contributes the
smallest amount of energy?
d. heat energy from the earth's interior
The blueness of the sky is mainly due to
a. the scattering of sunlight by air molecules.
____ 29. In the Northern Hemisphere, this day has the fewest hours of daylight.
b. winter solstice
Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long?
d. at the Equator
During the summer in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found
a. at high latitudes.
The first day of spring occurs on or about March 21; March 21 is called the
equinox
Between Christmas and New Year's, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the length of the day
increases
On which date would the sun's rays be closest to being perpendicular to the earth's surface in the middle
latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere?
June 21
A t middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, we can expect the day with the shortest number of daylight
hours to occur around
December 22
In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing
day.
d. more than 12 hours, getting shorter
The sun will be directly overhead at noon at the equator
b. on March 21
The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that
c. over 80% of the Southern Hemisphere is covered with water.
Which of the following is generally true at night?
b. the earth emits more energy than it absorbs
In clear weather the air next to the ground is usually ____ than the air above during the night, and ____ than
the air above during the day.
a. colder, warmer
Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called
b. isotherms.
The thermometer most likely to contain alcohol.
e. minimum thermometer
An ideal shelter for housing a temperature-measurement instrument should be
white