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AP US History Chapter 12 and 13
Terms in this set (38)
What is nationalism?
-the most impressive by-product of the War of 1812
-America proved it could defend its sovereignty
-Jackson's victory in the Battle of New Orleans encouraged people to believe the country was destined to control America
-by 1815, Jeffersonian democracy, with an emphasis on political participation by ordinary people, was part of the American fabric
-however, a new national identity caused the necessity of a central government powerful enough to support the needs of a growing country
What was the American System?
-during the War of 1812, trade with Britain was suspended
-American manufacturers filled the gap
-however, with peace, Britain challenged these startups with competition for goods
-Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun believe the national government should provide protection for American businesses
-Madison proposed these ideas in address to Congress in 1815
-Clay calls the plan the American system
What were the results of the American system?
-create a new national bank to provide easy and abundant credit
-create a protective tariff to protect American companies
-federal financing of a system of new roads and calls facilitated internal commerce
-there was major support in the west
-Madison vetoes transportation funds because they were unconstitutional
-there was opposition in New England due to the drain on population and increase in competition from newly created states
-permanent army and strong navy
-create a national university
When and what was the Era of Good Feelings?
-James Monroe was the 1816 Republican nominee for President
-the 4th president from Virginia
-the federalists are done, and divisive politics all but disappear
-straddles the era of the Founding Fathers and an emergent age of nationalism
-Monroe was the least distinguished of the first 8 presidents
-1817 Monroe takes a goodwill tour and a Boston paper announced that an "Era of Good Feelings" had been ushered in
-the era would be a short one as economic hard times, sectional disputed, and threats from Europe would soon show
What happened in the McCulloch v. Maryland court case?
-this was John Marshall's single most important interpretation of the constitutional system
-John Mcculloch was a clerk at the Baltimore branch of the US Bank
-Maryland law requires taxing on US Bank Notes
-McCulloch refuses to comply with MD law and is indicted by MD
-McCulloch appeals to the Supreme Court
What was the decision?
-unanimous judgement upholding the power of Congress to charter the bank and denying any right of MD to tax the bank
What was Maryland's argument?
-the Federal Government was created by the sovereign states
What was Marshall's argument?
-the Federal Government arose directly through the people acting through conventions that had ratified the Constitution
-the Federal Government "though limited in its powers, is supreme within its sphere of action"
-the Federal Government has implied powers
-the "necessary and proper" clause did not mean "absolutely indispensable"
-Maryland's effort to tax the Bank conflicted with the Supreme Law of US
-"the power to tax involves the power to destroy"
What happened in the Gibbons v. Ogden court case?
-this was John Marshall's last great decision
-it established national supremacy in regulating interstate commerce
-Aaron Ogden was awarded exclusive rights by NY to navigate the Hudson River between NY and NJ
-Thomas Gibbons was awarded a federal license to operate a coastal trade and entered into competition with Ogden
-Marshall ruled the monopoly granted by the state conflicted with the federal Coasting Act
-congressional power regulates commerce
What happened during the Webster v. Haye debate?
Senator Robert Y. Hayne (SC)
-the Union constituted a compact of states
-the federal gov't was their "agent" and could not be the judge of its own powers
-the states free to judge when their agent had overstepped bounds of the Constitution
-the right of state interposition was "as full & complete as it was before the Constitution was formed."
Senator Daniel Webster (MA)
-the American Revolution had been a crusade of a united nation rather than separate colonies
-true sovereignty resided in the people as a whole,with both the federal & state gov't acting as their agents
-if a single state could nullify a federal law then the Union was a "rope of sand"
Who was the winner of the Webster v. Hayne debate?
-Hayne was the better historical argument in advancing the states' compact theory
-the real winner "the God-like Daniel."
"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
-union & majority rule meant more to westerners and Jackson than state sovereignty and nullification
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
-there were 4 major points laid out in Monroe's annual message to Congress in 1823
1. the American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers
2. the political system of European powers was different from that of the US and any attempt to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere is dangerous to our peace and safety
3. the US would not interfere with existing European colonies
4. the US would keep out of the internal affairs of European nations and their wars
-this drew little attention in the US or abroad
-the Doctrine had no standing in international law
-merely a statement of intent by Monroe to Congress
What was the nullification crisis?
-South Carolina was suffering from agricultural depression because the protective tariff raised the cost of manufactured goods and reduced the ability of British and French to buy southern cotton
-Congress reenacts the "Tariff of Abominations" in 1832
-this hurts Southern constituents, represents growing powers of the central government and balances power moving away from the South
-South Carolina adopts an Ordinance of Nullification
-this declares the tariff null and void, forbade the collection of duties in SC and threatened secession if the government interfered
-John C. Calhoun secretly drafted the South Carolina Exposition and Protest justifying the Ordinance
-Calhoun's major argument was that since the US Constitution had been ratified by state conventions, then state conventions could also declare laws null and void if they were judged to be unconstitutional
-this was an issue because it directly challenged Jackson's presidency
-Jackson requests Congressional approval to use military force to make South Carolina obey national laws
-Henry Clay suggested a compromise bill - gradually reduce the tariff by 10% over 8 years
-Calhoun leads S. Carolina in rescinding the Ordinance of Nullification in 1833
What was Calhoun's theory regarding the Nullification Crisis?
-to preserve the Union by protecting the minority rights that the agricultural and slave holding South claimed
-a state could interpose state authority and repeal a federal law if a state convention was held & found the federal law violated the Constitution
-one of two outcomes possible
1. federal gov't could abandon the law
2. federal gov't could propose a constitutional amendment
-South Carolina argued the tariffs were authorized for protecting American industry from foreign competition
-the Constitution authorized tariffs for revenue only
What happened in the year 1819?
-there was a controversial effort to expand the US territory
-there was an intense financial panic
-there was a tense debate over the extension of slavery
-there were several landmark Supreme Court cases
What was the result?
-all of these in combination will bring an unsettling end to the Era of Good Feelings
What happened in Florida?
-the Spanish province had become a thorn in the side of the US because it was a center of British intrigue, a haven for Creek refugees, and a harbor for runaway slaves and criminals
-the Secretary of War John C. Calhoun authorizes a campaign against the Seminoles and Andrew Jackson took command
-Jackson was ordered to pursue into Spanish territory without attacking any Spanish posts
-Jackson took a Spanish post, destroyed Seminole settlements, hung two Seminole leaders, and seized Pensacola
-therefore, Florida was in American has by 1818
-in 1819, Spain cedes all of Florida in return for the US government's assumption of private American claimed against Spain - up to $5 million
-Florida became a US territory, and Andrew Jackson was the first governor
-Florida achieved statehood in 1845
What happened during the Panic of 1819?
-the national bank was supposed to stabilize the economy
-however, it contributed to the first financial panic that the nation had suffered since Washington took office
-fueled by the resumption of trade with Europe and the end of the War of 1812
-created a demand for American cotton and grain by Europeans
-eager farmers moved west and sought loans to purchase land
-banks expanded credit for speculators and land purchases
-European market adjusts and land prices decline steeply
-then a sudden collapse of cotton prices (32 cents to 14 cents per pound)
-land values and income plummet
-the 2nd Bank of the US forecloses on many farms; bankruptcies are common
-deflation, depression, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, debtors prisons
-creates backwashes for the poor
-the people blame the bank and resentment lingers in the South and West
-hard times last about 3 years, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian democracy
What was the Missouri Compromise?
-there was an equal number of slave and free states in 1819 (11 each)
-Missouri desired statehood in 1819
-What would happen as settlers from the South moved west and brought their slaves with them?
-NY Congressman James Tallmage Jr. proposes legislation prohibiting further introduction of slaves into Missouri
-the House passes this legislation, by the Senate rejects the Tillage Amendment
-the issues was representation - The North is growing faster than the slave holding south
-Maine applies for statehood and is admitted as a free state
-Missouri is admitted as a slave state
-slavery is prohibited from the rest of LA territory north of 36 30
-the legislation passes in the House and the Senate
-President Monroe admits Missouri as the 24th state
What happened at the Hartford Convention?
-New England never really supported "Mr. Madison's war"
-profited from illegal trading & privateering
-MA & CT refused to contribute militias to the war effort
-merchants sold supplies to British troops in Canada
-after the fall of Napoleon, the British extended their blockade to New England, occupied Maine, and conducted several raids along the coast
-Federalists in MA voted in 1814 to hold a convention in N.E. to plan independent action, instead of rallying to the flag
-seven constitutional amendments proposed in order to limit Republican and southern influence
1. abolish counting slaves for congressional representation
2. require 2/3rds vote for admission of new states
3. require 2/3rds vote to declare war
4. prohibit embargoes lasting more than 60 days
5. exclude foreign born from holding federal offices
6. limit the president to one term
7. forbid successive presidents from the same state (VA)
-if demands go unmet N.E. states will discuss secession
-threat of secession never materializes because people of Washington were celebrating the good news from the Battle of New Orleans & the Treaty of Ghent
-Hartford Convention delegates withdraw their demands
-fatal blow to the Federalist party which will never recover from the stigma of disloyalty stamped on it by the Hartford Convention
What were the results of the Hartford Convention?
-there was no clear winner on paper
-both sides admitted things would return to how they had been before hostilities began
-however, the U.S. had proven itself to be an independent nation capable of defending itself unleashing intense patriotism
-under Republican leadership the nation had survived a
"second war of independence."
-American manufactures began to emerge
-Republicans & Federalists reversed roles
-the war had "Federalized" Madison (bank, peacetime army), increased tariffs on imports, revealed transportation weaknesses and a need for internal improvements
-Federalists became states' rights and strict constructionists
-and Britain, perhaps from having noticed that the American forces seemed to become stronger as the war went on, made no further attempts to undermine American sovereignty
Who was John Quincy Adams?
-had one of the most distinguished pre-presidential careers in American history, yet his presidency would have few successes
-lacked the common touch, not a politician
-stubborn, suffered from chronic bouts of depression
-an idealist, who refused to play the game of patronage
-had a clear vision as a nationalist
-embraced the American System
-central government should promote internal improvements
-called for a national university, an astronomical observatory, and a naval academy
What were criticisms of John Quincy Adams?
-too much elitist political control
-national government overstepped its bounds of proper authority
-many saw Adams as a threat to individual liberties with his philosophy of Liberty is Power
-southern criticism of Adams "Tariff of Abominations" because cotton needed no protection
-attempted to curb speculation for public lands angering westerners
-accused of supporting land rights of Indians against settlers; GA governor 1825 Treaty with the Creeks to cede land rights in GA; Adams intervenes and calls for new negotiations; Governor threatens to take land by force; Congress sides with Governor and passes legislation forcing Creek removal
What happened during the election of 1808?
-James Madison was the Democratic Republican from VA
-Madison received 122 electoral votes
-Charles Pinckney was the Federalist from SC
-Pickney received 47 electoral votes
-the Embargo act of 1807 and the Louisiana Purchase along with European tension and being a peoples favorite across the country made Jefferson's presidency a very hard act to follow
What happened in the Election of 1824?
-every section of the country has its favorite son
-William H. Crawford (Monroe's Sec. of Treasury) (state's rights and strict construction) wins VA, GA, DE
-Henry Clay (from KY) (longtime speaker of the House) (the American System - national bank, tariff, internal improvements) wins KY, OH, MO
-John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State) carried New England
-Andrew Jackson (war hero) sweeps S. East, IL, IN, NC, SC, PA, MD, NJ
-Jackson had 99 electoral votes, Adams had 84, Crawford had 41, Clay had 37
-election went to the House of Representatives and Clay supported Adams because he sees Jackson as unfit for office
-Adams had 13 votes, Jackson had 7, Crawford had 4
-this was a costly election for Adams
-Adams was accused of making a corrupt bargain; there was no evidence, though the charge was widely believed
-Clay become Adams Secretary of State
What happened in the Election of 1828?
-John Quincy Adams v. Andrew Jackson
-Jackson had the advantage
-the spread of suffrage provided means to combat rising commercial and manufacturing interests
-Jackson special appeal to the masses
-Jackson had 178 electoral votes
-Adams had 83 electoral votes
What happened during Andrew Jackson's Presidency?
-first president not from a prominent colonial family
-born into hardship: an orphan, no college education
-becomes a wealthy plantation owner
-first President from the west
-military leader: political views were complex and contradictory
-democracy was not extended to Indians or slaves
-distrusted wealthy men: feared market revolution would destroy moral fiber of the agrarian nation
-opposed the American System as an elitist
-supported state's rights, yet was a strong nationalist
What happened during Jackson's inauguration of 1829?
-March 4, 1829
-thousands of Hickoryites descend on DC
-this was the first time the White House was open to the public
-behavior appalls traditional society
-the inaugural brawl
What happened during the election of 1836?
-Martin van Buren was a democrat from New York
-Jacksons hand picked successor
-polls well nation wide
-William Henry Harrison was a whig from Indiana
-there was a three way race with Harrison as the front runner
-Harrison hoped to throw the election into the House
-van Buren had 170 electoral votes
-Harrison had 73 electoral votes
Who was the 8th president?
-Martin van Buren
-first president not born a British subject
-first president of Dutch ancestry
-son of a tavern keeper
-wife Hannah died twelve years after marriage, widower with 4 sons to raise by himself
-senator from NY; becomes a member of Jackson's cabinet
-nicknamed The Little Magician
-promised to carry on with Jackson's policies
-one term president
What happened during the election of 1840?
-van Buren faced criticism for both the economic depression and handling of foreign affairs
-he opposed annexing Texas
-he measured an approach to northern border problems
-his opponent was William Henry Harrison, "Tippecanoe & Tyler Too"
-the whigs portrayed Harrison as the rough and tumble "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" candidate
-"Harrison would probably be just as happy with a jug of hard cider to sip in front of his log cabin as serving as president"
-van Buren ridiculed as fussy, aristocratic, and unmanly
-van Buren only wins 6 states, loses NY
-Harrison has 234 electoral votes
-van Buren has 60 electoral votes
What happened during Jackson's rift with Calhoun?
-at the Jefferson Day dinner
-24 toasts extolling states' rights
-Jackson's toast, "Our Union - It must be preserved!"
-Calhoun's toast, "The Union, next to our liberty most dear! May we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States and distributing equally the benefit and the burden of the Union!"
-then May 1830, Jackson sees letter that showed Calhoun as Sec. of War had proposed disciplining Jackson for his invasion of FL; Jackson removes all Calhoun partisans from the cabinet
-Calhoun will lead SC nullificationists
What was Jackson's and Clay's firm response to the South Carolina ordinance?
-1832, he enforce the tariff and encouraged Congress to lower the rates
-he called out nullification as an "impractical absurdity"
-Jackson sends federal soldiers and ships to SC
-nullifiers mobilize state militia
-1833 Jackson requests a "force bill"
-nullifiers postpone enforcement of ordinance hoping for compromise
-Clay argues for reducing tariff gradually until 1842, Congress passes the legislation
-SC rescinds nullification but nullifies force bill
-both sides now can claim victory; Jackson upheld the Supremacy of the Union; SC secured reduction of tariff
What happened during Indian Removal?
-western expansion continued, and there was more conflict between settlers and Indians
-the federal policy had been inconsistent since the 1790s
-Washington recognized tribes as separate nations with whom treaties must be negotiated
-as time passed, treaties ignored and boundary lines moved
-Jackson was elected in 1828
-many Americans want Indians moved west of the Mississippi River, with a special focus on the 5 civilized tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole
-these tribes were mainly found in GA, AL, MS, FL, NC
-many Indians settle down, farm, and adopt white customs including constitutions and legal codes
-in 1828 GA declared the Cherokee National Council illegal, giving GA jurisdiction over Indians lands
-Jackson supported GA
-in 1830, US Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, granting land and money to Indians who relocate to OK and KS
-most tribes comply and move west
-the Cherokees appeal to the Supreme Court and Marshall rules in their favor
-"John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it" A. Jackson
-Bad Axe Massacre of 1832: Chief Black Hawk and his Sauk and Fox followers refused to be relocated from western Illinois and many of them were killed
-in 1835, Cherokees sign a treaty giving US lands east of the MS River
-Federal troops supervise the removal of the Cherokee during 1838-1839; 1/4th die along the route to Oklahoma; this event becomes known as the Trail of Tears
Who was Father Paul Prucha and what were his views on Jackson's Role in Indian Removal?
-historians see the tole of Andrew Jackson as "the Devil" and a vicious Indian hater, because his aim was to crush them
-Prucha says this argument is too simplistic
-Jackson fought the Indians because they were British allies
-many Indian wars were fought for security in the west
-white American settlements in the west would keep the Brits out
-Jackson was harsh in punishing Indians for raids or skirmishes, but he also punished those who hurt peaceful Indians
-Jackson did not view the Indians as noble savages
-Jackson thought Indians were no different that whites; they were motivated by fear, self-preservation, and self-interest
-Jackson felt the Indians could change, and they must if they were to survive and thrive
-the Indians did not form sovereign nations; they roamed the land and made no improvements
-Indians did not make their own laws, so they must be subject to American laws
-Indians should move west if they wanted to be independent
What were the realistic options available to Americans concerning Indian Removal?
-Total Extermination: only misguided frontiersmen considered this; American policy makers never once considered this an option
-Rapid Assimilation: only idealistic humanitarians considered this realistic, and it soon became apparent that this would not happen
-Protect the Indians in their Ancestral Lands: it would take the federal government's help; US would have to establish a standing army; Federal government would be required to go to war in GA; GA was not willing to allow a foreign nation in her territory
-Removal: probably the best solution given the political situation info the day; placed where federal/state jurisdiction was not an issue; assimilation took place at the pace of Indians choosing; or the Indians could keep their own culture
Who was Martin van Buren and what was the new party system?
-Jackson had killed the bank and nullification
-hard times were soon to follow
-the people blame Nicholas Biddle and the Bank
-most Americans still love Andrew Jackson
Who were the Whigs?
-the party of Henry Clay's nationalism
-united in their opposition to Andrew Jackson
-former Democrats (slave holders/bankers)
-western farmers who wanted internal improvements
-John Quincy Adams and Daniel Webster
-associated with social conservatism, elitism, and will attempt to court the "common man"
-natives were born evangelical Protestants (Presbyterians, Baptists, Congregationalists) supporting abolition and temperance
What happened during the Panic of 1837?
-van Buren inherits a financial panic because of the depression in England leads to a drop in the American price of cotton and the English cut back on American investments
-the states curtail plans for internal improvements
-many "wildcat banks" close
-federal government loses $9 million deposited in pet banks
-1/3rd of the workforce is jobless and the wages are cut 30 - 50%
-inflation - price of food & clothing soar
-no government aid
-support provided by churches and non-profits
-Laissez Faire - the government stays out and allows the economy to self correct
-van Buren proposes the Independent Treasury Act, which passes July 4, 1840,
and avoids placing federal deposits in risky state banks
What were the main causes of the War of 1812?
-the demand for neutral shipping rights
-continual harassment of American commerce by British
-British laws, known as Orders in Council, declared blockades against American ships bound for European ports
-attacks by "savages" on "one of our extensive frontiers" believed to be instigated by British troops in Canada
What happened during the War of 1812?
-the U.S. Congress was being steered by an aggressive faction of young legislators in the House of Representatives known as the War Hawks
-Henry Clay, a leader of the War Hawks, was a young member of Congress from Kentucky
-representing the views of Americans living in the West, Clay believed that war with Britain would not only restore American prestige, it would also provide a great benefit in territory
-an openly stated goal of the western War Hawks was for the U.S. to invade and seize Canada and there was a belief that it would be easy to achieve
-the War of 1812 has often been called "America's Second War for Independence," and that title is appropriate
-the young United States government was determined to make Britain respect it
-the U.S. Declared War In June 1812
-the vote in the House was 79 to 49 to go to war
-members of Congress supporting the war were mostly from the South and West, those opposed from the Northeast
-the U.S. Senate voted 19 to 13 to go to war
-the Senate vote also tended to be along regional lines, with most of the votes against the war coming from the Northeast
-with so many members of Congress voting against going to war, the War of 1812 was always controversial
-opposition to the War was a persistent problem
-it became obvious that the war would be costly and may prove impossible to win militarily
-the desire to find a peaceful end to the conflict intensified
-American officials were eventually dispatched to Europe to work toward a negotiated settlement, the result of which was the Treaty of Ghent
What happened during the Battle of New Orleans?
-the war had officially ended two weeks earlier
-news had not yet reached the U.S. from Europe and military clashes between the British and the Americans continued
-after a 3-year struggle against superior British forces, outnumbered American Army and Marines succeeded in preventing the British from gaining a foothold in the southern territories of LA and western FL
-the battle helped the U.S. maintain its newly won independence and increased patriotic sentiment
-the war turned Jackson into a national hero and paved the way for his ascent to the presidency in 1828.
-Jackson, independent, resourceful and tough, epitomized the national image of the American frontiersman
-early in the War of 1812, he earned respect of his soldiers, and the nickname Old Hickory, when he refused an order to disband his troops in MS and instead marched them back to their base in TN
-his bold leadership, humble background and relentlessness inspired the ragtag American Army at New Orleans
-his image as a citizen-soldier and common man contributed to Jackson's nationwide popularity
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