In_____the Supreme Court banned execution of those who were under age 18 at the time of their crime.
In_____the Supreme Court banned imposing the death penalty on a defendant convincted of rape.
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
In 2009, more than _____ people were incarcerated in federal and state prison and local jails.
The juvenile justice system was designed to be more concerned about rehabilitation than:
Among _______, juvenile property crime victimization rates do not vary significantly from adult victimization rates.
The small racial differences in outcomes at the initial stages of the process that accumulate and become more pronounced as minority youths are processed further into the juvenile justice system are known as:
The proportion of the total population younger than age 18 that reached each stage in the juvenile justice process is called:
The United States Supreme Court ruled in ______ that hearings determining whether juvenile cases will be heard in adult court must measure up to "the essentials of due process and fair treatment."
Kent v. United States (1966)
While Baston seemed to offer hope that the goal of a representative jury was attainable, an examination of cases decided since 1986 suggests:
Concerns about false convictions also are based on research showing not only that a disproportionate number of those exonerated have been racial minorities but that the disparity is particularly stark in cases of:
interracial sexual assault
Sentencing studies from the 1930s through the 1960s usually used _____ statistical techniques.
The numerous studies of racial disparity in sentencing conducted during the 1970s and 1980s are notable for their _____ theorhetical and methodological sophistication.
The term secondary labor market refers to:
available low-paying jobs with limited fringe benefits and uncertain prospects for the future.
People of color are victimized by violent and property crimes at a ____ rate than white Americans.
Discrimination is a difference based on _____ without reference to an individual's behavior or qualifications.
differential treatment of groups
Heather MacDonald argues the primary cause of the high rate of incarceration of African Americans is:
involvement in criminal behavior
It is difficult to make useful comparisons of the criminal justice experiences of different racial and ethnic groups because:
there has been little comparative research
The basic premise of _____ theory is that the law is used to maintain the power of a society's dominant group and control the individuals that threaten that power.
_____ discrimination occurs at all stages of the criminal justice system, in all places, and at all times.
Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that _____ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children.
Historically, many property owners in the North adopted restrictive covenants that prohibited the sale of property to:
African Americans or Jews
______ theory holds that the administration of criminal justice reflects the unequal distribution of power in society.