70 terms

HTHS 2231 Lab 8

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Terms in this set (...)

osteoblast
Bone cell.

Bone builders.
Removes Ca++ from blood and gives it to bone.

Stimulating hormone = calcitonin
osteoclast
Bone cell.

Bone chewers.
Removes Ca++ from bone and gives it to blood.

Stimulating hormone = Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
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What are the major components of bone?
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
open fracture
Fracture classification.
Broken bone end protrudes through skin.
High risk of infection.
closed fracture
Fracture classification.
No penetration of skin.
comminuted fracture
Fracture classification.
Multiple bone fragments.
linear fracture
Fracture classification.
Along long axis of bone. Most common type of skull fracture.
oblique fracture
Fracture classification.
At an angle to long axis of bone.
spiral fracture
Fracture classification.
Break forms a twisted line. Torque on bone. Spiral fracture of tibia is a common ski injury.
transverse fracture
Fracture classification.
Across the long axis.
greenstick fracture
Fracture classification.
Partial break. Common in children.
transchondral
Fracture classification.
Through cartilage or growth plate.
osteoporosis
Loss of bone tissue.
spine, wrists, hips
What three areas of the skeleton are especially weakened in osteoporosis?
30-35
At approximately what age does bone reabsorption begin to exceed bone formation?
bone densitometer
What tool is used to detect bone density with a 1% degree of accuracy?
age, gender, diet, exercise, weight, race
What conditions can affect osteoporosis?
weight bearing exercises, calciu, and vitamin d supplementation, hormone replacement
What lifestyle changes can affect environmental risk factors for osteoporosis?
gout
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Acute arthritis resulting from depositions of uric acid crystals in the body.
fibromyalgia
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue with no inflammation.
rickets
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Vitamin D deficiency leads to bone malformations.
rheumatoid arthritis
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Chronic systemic inflammation disorder primarily affecting the joints.
rhabdomyolysis
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Rapid breakdown of muscle due to severe muscle damage.
malignant hyperthermia
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Genetic disease causing a rapid rise of body temperature due to muscle contraction.
compartment syndrome
Musculoskeletal Disorder: Increased pressure in fascia causes diminished blood flow, tissue hypoxia and necrosis.
Paget disease
Musculoskeletal Disorder: State of excessive bone remodeling causing abnormal bone curvatures.
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List the components of the male reproductive system.
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List the components of the female reproductive system.
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Explain the female reproductive cycle and the hormones involved and their function.
bacterial vaginosis
STD:

Symptoms: Vaginal discharge with a "fishy" smell.


Complication: Usually none.
chlamydia
STD:

Symptoms: Usually asymptomatic. Can have vaginal discharge.


Complication: PID leading to infertility.
genital herpes
STD:

Symptoms: Pain, itching, and sores in genital area.


Complication: Increased miscarriage risk, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission to infant, causing other complications.
genital warts
STD:

Symptoms: Warts on genitals, mouth or throat, cauliflower shape, itching or discomfort in genital area, bleeding with intercourse.


Complication: Cervical cancer.
gonorrhea
STD:

Symptoms: Flu-like symptoms, penile or vaginal discharge, joint pain


Complication: Epididymyitis, lymphangitis, salpingitis, infertility, disseminated blood infection, neonatal blindness
HIV/AIDS
STD:

Symptoms: 2-4 weeks after infection like flu (fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, pains, headache). During latency stage are no symptoms. Late stage is rapid weight loss, recurring fever, extreme fatigue, pneumocystis, pneumonia.


Complication: Wasting syndrome and neurological complications, opportunistic infections (TB, salmonella, cytomegalovirus, candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma)
syphilis
STD:

Symptoms: Chancre (develops 10-90 days after infection and lasts 3-6 weeks), skin rashes and/or sores in mouth, vagina, or anus (relapse up to 4 years), neurological, cardiac, and cutaneous involvement (10-30 years after secondary stage)


Complication: Gummas, neurological problems, cardiovascular problems
trichomoniasis
STD:

Symptoms: Can be asymptomatic, yellow-green discharge, pruritis (itching), painful intercourse, and dysuria


Complication: Not many long term complications.
primary dysmenorrhea
Reproductive Disorders: Painful menses caused by excessive prostaglandin secretion.
PID
Reproductive Disorders: Acute inflammation of the uterus, uterine tubes, and/or ovaries.
spermatocele
Reproductive Disorders: Cyst between epididymous and testis.
cryptorchidism
Reproductive Disorders: Failure of testicles to descend.
hydrocele
Reproductive Disorders: Fluid causing scrotal swelling.
peyronie disease
Reproductive Disorders: Fibrous penile plaques.
polycystic ovarian syndrome
Reproductive Disorders: Many cysts on enlarged ovaries.
orchitis
Reproductive Disorders: Inflammation of the testicle.
varicocele
Reproductive Disorders: Spermatic cord vein enlargement.
BPH
Reproductive Disorders: Enlarged prostate compressing the urethra.
testicular torsion
Reproductive Disorders: Blood supply of testicles interrupted by rotation of spermatic cord.
phimosis
Reproductive Disorders: Penile foreskin too tight over the glans penis.
endometriosis
Reproductive Disorders: Functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterus.
secondary amenorrhea
Reproductive Disorders: Stop of menstruation for 3 or more cycles.
fibromyalgia
A 29 year-old woman complains to her physician that she hasn't felt well since having the flu several months ago. She is extremely tired but often doesn't sleep well at night. She complains of generalized aching and pain. She has experienced frequent migraines and is often incapacitated for days. Her bowel movements are irregular and fluctuate between constipation and diarrhea. Physical exam revealed pain to the touch at the base of the neck, muscles in upper back, upper muscles of the buttocks, knee joints, and sides of the elbows. Laboratory tests are unremarkable with normal chemistry,CBC, and thyroid function. ESR is within the normal range. ANA, RA, and mono tests are negative.

What is your diagnosis?
gout
A 65 year-old man complains of pain in his left elbow and right great toe. He has a history of kidney stones. Lab results show normal CBC and chemistry values other than an elevated uric acid.

What is your diagnosis?
osteoporosis
A 70 year-old woman fell and broke her hip. Her daughter accompanies her to the emergency room. She reports no past surgeries or traumas except for a hysterectomy when she was 40.

What is your diagnosis?
rheumatoid arthritis
A 58- year old woman has suffered from pain and swelling of her hands and feet that is aggravated by movement. Over the past decade she has noted increasing deformity of her hands and feet, making it difficult to walk and to perform simple daily activities such as buttoning a blouse or even combing her hair. She has no history of any trauma. Radiographs show ankylosis of the carpals (immobility) with residual evidence of MP joint erosion and decreased bone mass of the metacarpals and carpals. Physical examination reveals firm, non-tender, less than 1 cm nodules over the elbows.
Click on Case 5, Images 5a and 5b: Image 5a shows the left hand of the patient. Image 5b shows joint narrowing with marginal erosions and osteoporosis of the hand.

What is your diagnosis?
bacterial vaginosis
A 32 year-old woman had unusual vaginal discharge. She has recently experienced some pain and itching in her vagina, as well as when she urinates. She also seems to recall the odor of the discharge as a strong fish like smell.

What is your diagnosis?
endometriosis
A 34 year-old woman complained of severe dysmenorrhea and irregular bowel movements. She had two children during her early twenties, but had been unable to conceive since then. At laparoscopy, multiple "powder burn" lesions were noted on the pelvic peritoneum, uterine wall, left fallopian tube, and left ovary. A small mass was visible in the wall of the sigmoid colon.
Click on Case 7, Image 7a, 7b, and 7c: Image 7a shows the surface of a uterus from a woman with a similar disease process shows a few focal small darkly discolored lesions.
Image 7b shows that upon further inspection, the lesions on the surface of the uterus have the appearance of small "powder burns." Image 7c shows that microscopically, the lesions on the serosal surfaces are composed of both endometrial glands and stroma with hemorrhage.

What is your diagnosis?
gonorrhea
A 24 year-old male reports to his physician that he has been experiencing painful urination, a cloudy penile discharge, and has been achy, especially in his knees. He has been feverish and feels like he might have the flu. Physical exam indicates epididymitis, enlarged prostate, and swollen lymph glands and joints. A penile discharge is cultured as well as synovial fluid from the knee joints. Both cultures are positive for intracellular gram-negative diplococcic.

What is your diagnosis?
syphilis
A pregnant 18 year-old woman came to an urgent-care clinic with a low-grade fever, malaise, and headache. She was sent home with a diagnosis of influenza. She again sought treatment 7 days later with a macular rash on her trunk, arms, hands, and feet. Further questioning of the patient when serology results were known revealed that 1 month previously,she had a painless ulcer on her vagina that healed spontaneously.

What STD do you suspect?
skeletal
Muscle tissue. Striated. Multi-nucleated. Connected to bone via tendons.
smooth
Muscle tissue. Still have sarcomeres.
ligaments
Bones are connected to each other by:
strained, spained
Tendons get ___, ligaments get _____.
cardiac
Muscle tissue. Striated. Connected by intercalated discs (gap junctions).
dislocation
Skeletal System Stress:
Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces. (Common with shoulders.)
subluxation
Skeletal System Stress:
Partial loss of contact between articular surfaces.
impacted fracture
Fracture classification.
Fragments pushed into each other.
vaginitis, cervicitis, urethritis, vulvitis
Reproductive Disorders: 4 female inflammatory conditions caused by STDs.
tendons
Bones are connected to muscle by: