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Zooplankton populations in Lake Erie and the Hudson River have declined by up to 70% since the arrival of zebra mussels because ________.

zebra mussels feed on phytoplankton, which zooplankton need as a food source

Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.

intraspecific competition

How do predation and parasitism differ?

Parasites rarely kill their host while predators kill their prey.

Many plants have developed complicated defenses to protect themselves against _____.


Decomposers and detritivores are responsible for enhancing the soil by recycling __________.


Zooplankton-eating fish are ________.

secondary consumers

Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a(n) ________ association.


The most accurate way to represent trophic levels in a food chain graphically would be as ____________.

pyramid of energy

Which of the following is true about top predators?

They are likely to be keystone species.

________ carried out research to determine the impact of zebra mussels on fish communities

David Strayer

Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?

A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.

Which statement best describes the process of ecological succession?

After a disturbance, the community goes through a somewhat predictable set of changes until reaching a final state called a climax community.

Techniques to eradicate zebra mussels ________.

include introducing predators and diseases

The Everglades Restoration Plan in Florida ________.

will restore natural levels of water flow by undoing numerous damming and drainage projects

Which of the following types of graphs would a scientist reference when determining the biome of an area?

A climatograph

________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest.


Desert and tundra both ________.

have relatively low precipitation

Which list includes biomes in the correct order based on those that have the lowest annual rainfall to those that have the highest?

desert, grassland, temperate deciduous forest, tropical rain forest

Which of the following biomes has soil with the lowest nutrients and least organic matter?

a tropical rain forest

The type of biome that has been converted most frequently by humans for agricultural use is the _____.

temperate grassland

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