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Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
active labor policies
government programs that are designed to help the unemployed find jobs through training, creating jobs, subsidizing employment, and aid in their job search.
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature).
primary or lower house of German Parliament, consisting of 603 delegates elected by the people
Includes: 1) Physical/bodily capabilities, 2) Mental capabilities, 3) Social capabilities, 4) Capacity for singularity.
Distinct, politically defined territories that encompass political institutions, cultures, economies, and ethnic and other social identities
centrally planned economy
economic systems in which the state determines production, consumption, and pricing of commodities
Constitutionally independent but largely under control of the CCP.
a group of members that oversee the Communist Party in China
- an ideological tradition within European conservatism that is characterized by a commitment to the social market and qualified economic intervention
method of inquiry that seeks to explain government and politics by examining multiple cases taken from several different political systems
crisis of governability
when states have trouble making their laws effective the authority of the state is not respected and public order and programs of the state deteriorate
improvement in human well-being through economic advancement
extreme market democracy
Rich democracy where elite parties are successful
global production chain
order in the us, resources from africa, made in asia, shipped around the world
Great Leap Forward
economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.
Great Proletarian Revolution
Mao Zedong's great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China
hypothesizes that violence is provoked by political leader who manipulate symbols and beliefs to set groups against each other for political benefits
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites
Iran's unicameral parliament, consisting of 290 elected representatives
the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold
The former Soviet Communist Party's system of controlling all important administrative appointments, thereby ensuring the support and loyalty of those who managed day-to-day affairs.
mikhail gorbachev's plan to reform the soviet union by restructing the economy
commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate
Model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities.
public sector employment
people who work for some kind of government agency
Russian Federal Assembly
Bicameral: Federal Council and Duma
Russian State Duma
is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia. It has 29 Committees.
is the belif that people should have Mohammeds descands as their leaders
policies in formerly communist countries that envisage as rapid a shift to a market economy as possible
a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group
states that are able to fulfill basic tasks: defend their territory, make and enforce rules and rights, collect taxes, and manage the economy
US political culture
The broad pattern of ideas, beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by a population. US: democracy, freedom, and equality