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What are the 3 primary functions of the urinary system?
excretion - removal of wastes
elimination - discharge of water products into the environment
homeostatic regulation - maintaining blood balance and blood pressure
What happens during filtration?
blood pressure forces water and dissolved solutes out of the glomerular capillaries an into the capsular space
What are the 3 layers of connective tissue protecting and stablizing each kidney?
perinephric fat capsule
What is the job of the PCT (proximal convoluted tubule) in the nephron?
reabsoption of water, ions and organic nutrients
What is the job of the DCT (distal convoluted tubule) in the nephron?
reabsorption of water, sodium ions and calcium ions (under hormonal control)
secretion of drugs, acids and toxins
What is the job of the nephron loop?
further reabsorption of water in the descending limb
further reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the ascending limb
What is the job of the collection ducts?
reabsoption of water
secretion of sodium, potassium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
What percentage of the nephrons are located in the medulla and what are the called?
What is the vasa recta?
long, straight capillaries that parallel the nephron loop (vasa, vessel + recta)
Damage to which part of the nephron would interfere with hormonal control of the blood pressure?
How would the lack of jextamedullary nephrons affects the volume and osmotic concentration of urine?
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