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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Terms in this set (28)
Because most salt substitutes contain ____________, it can have serious cardiac side-effects, such as _________.
potassium (K+); dysrhythmias or arrest, i.e. DEATH!
Kidney stones are commonly composed of what?
Calcium salts; people taking calcium need to drink plenty water to reduce kidney stone formation.
An excess intake of this electrolyte may be contraindicated in folks with impaired renal function:
Ringer's solution contains which electrolytes?
sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium
Lactated Ringer's solutions contains which electrolytes?
sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and lactate
Infiltration is when an IV needle becomes dislodge from a vein and begins leaking fluid into interstitial spaces.
What role do the lungs play in regulating the acid-base balance of the body?
The lungs help regulate acid-base balance by eliminating CO2, a potential acid by altering the rate and depth of respirations.
Describe respiratory acidosis
Respiratory acidosis: blood pH less than 7.35; hypoventilation and carbon dioxide retention cause carbonic acid levels to increase and pH to fall, leading to a state of acidosis in the body; common causes include: asthma, COPD, central nervous system depression from anesthesia or narcotics
Describe respiratory alkalosis
Respiratory alkalosis- blood pH greater than 7.45; hyperventilation causes more carbon dioxide to be exhaled than normal, carbonic acid levels fall, and pH rises; common causes include: psychogenic and/or anxiety related causes, also fever and respiratory infection
Describe metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis- when bicarb levels are low in relation to amount of carbonic acid, pH falls, may develop because of renal failure, inability of kidneys to excrete hydrogen ion and produce bicarbonate, or when too much acid is produced as in diabetic acidosis
Describe metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic alkalosis- bicarb in body exceeds normal 20:1 ratio, excessive injestion of bicarbonate of soda antacid is one cause, as well as prolonged vomiting with loss of hydrochloric acid from stomach, resp center is depressed, RR slow and shallow, CO2 is retained, and carbonic acid levels increase
What is pH?
pH is a measurement of acidity or alkalinity, based on the hydrogen (H+) ions present. Normal range - 7.35 to 7.45
What is PaO2?
PaO2: Partial pressure of oxygen that is dissolved in arterial blood. Normal range - 80 to 100 mm Hg
What is SaO2
SaO2: Arterial oxygen saturation. Normal range - 95% to 100%
What is PaCO2?
PaCO2: Amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood. The normal range - 35 to 45 mm Hg
What is HC03?
HCO3: Calculated value of amount of bicarbonate in the bloodstream Normal range - 22 to 26 mEq/liter
What is B.E.?
B.E.: Base excess -the amount of excess or deficit of bicarbonate in the system. Normal range is -2 to +2 mEq/liter
What are the normal reference ranges for potassium lab values in adults?
POTASSIUM: 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What are the normal reference ranges for Magnesium lab values in adults?
MAGNESIUM: 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What are the normal reference ranges for sodium lab values in adults?
SODIUM: 135-145 mEq/L
What are the normal reference ranges for chloride lab values in adults?
CHLORIDE: 95-108 mEq/L
What are the normal reference ranges for calcium lab values in adults?
CALCIUM: 4.5-5.5 mEq/L or 8.5-10.5 mg/dL
What are the normal reference ranges for phosphate lab values in adults?
PHOSPHATE: 1.8-2.6 mEq/L or 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
What are the normal reference ranges for serum osmolality lab values in adults?
SERUM OSMOLALITY: 280-300 mOsm/kg water
What is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)?
-A result of type 1 diabetes when there is noncompliance of administering insulin or the insulin dose isn't high enough. The body as a result breaks down fats for energy.
-The first symptom to arise is vision changes because there is no sugar to meet the demands of eyes
-Other symptoms are fever, vomiting, GI upset, deep, rapid breathing to get rid of acid, sweet, fruity breath, tachycardia, hypotension, increased potassium, urination will lead to dehydration
What is an expected assessment finding when caring for a client who has a serum potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L?
What are some possible effects on the body of hyperkalemia?
increased gastric motility, bradycardia, hypotension, and decreased muscle strength
What is the effect of administering D50W and regular insulin IV on a patient with an elevated serum potassium level?
An IV solution with a high dextrose concentration and Regular insulin will cause the potassium to move from the blood into the cells and decrease the serum potassium level.
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