22 terms

sympathetic and parasympathetic effects on various organs

eye (iris)
sympathetic: stimulates dilator muscles, dilates eye pupils
parasympathetic: stimulates constrictor muscles, constricts eye pupils
eye (ciliary muscle)
parasympathetic: stimulates ciliary muscles
-results in bulging of the lens for accommodation and close vision
glands (nasal, lacrimal, salivary, gastric, pancreas)
sympathetic: inhibits secretory activity, causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels supplying the glands
parasympathetic: stimulates secretory activity
sweat glands
sympathetic: stimulates copious sweating (cholinergic fibers)
arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicles
sympathetic: stimulates to contract (erects hairs and produces goose bumps)
heart muscle
sympathetic: increases rate and force of heartbeat
parasympathetic: decreases rate, slows and steadies heart
heart: coronary blood vessels
sympathetic: causes vasodilation
parasympathetic: causes vasoconstriction
sympathetic: dilates bronchioles and mildly constricts blood vessels
parasympathetic: constricts bronchioles
digestive tract organs
sympathetic: decreases activity of glands and muscles of digestive system and constricts sphincters
-causes vasoconstriction
parasympathetic: increases motility (peristalsis) and amount of secretion by digestive organs
-relaxes sphincters to allow movement of foodstuffs along tract
sympathetic: epinephrine stimulates liver to release glucose to blood
sympathetic: inhibits activity (gallbladder is relaxed)
parasympathetic: stimulates activity (gallbladder contracts to expel bile)
adrenal medulla
sympathetic: stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into bloodstream
sympathetic: causes vasoconstriction, decreases urine output
bladder, urethra
sympathetic: causes relaxation of smooth muscle of bladder wall, constricts urethral sphincter, inhibits voiding
parasympathetic: causes contraction of smooth muscle of bladder wall, relaxes urethral sphincter, promotes voiding
sympathetic: causes ejaculation
parasympathetic: causes erection (vasodilation)
sympathetic: stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterine wall, causes vasoconstriction of vessels
parasympathetic: inhibits contraction of smooth muscle of uterine wall, causes vasodilation of vessels
vagina, clitoris
sympathetic: causes contraction of vagina
parasympathetic: causes erection (vasodilation) of clitoris
blood vessels
sympathetic: constricts most vessels and increases blood pressure
-constricts vessels of abdominal viscera and skin to divert blood to muscles, brain and heart when necessary
blood coagulation
sympathetic: increases coagulation
cellular metabolism
sympathetic: increase metabolic rate
adipose tissue
sympathetic: stimulates lipolysis (fat breakdown)
mental activity
sympathetic: increases alertness