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Patho Phlash Final RIGHT
Terms in this set (81)
Acute Renal Failure
3 stages: oliguric, diuretic, and recovery; Acute damage to nephrons associated with severe hypotension, use of contrast dyes or structural damage to nephrons
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Enlargement of the prostate gland; common men in 50s; frequency, urgency, difficulty initiating flow of urine, nocturia; overflow incontinence
Painless hematuria, pelvic pain, lower back discomfort; middle-aged; males greater than females; associated with smoking
Chronic Renal Failure
Gradual destruction of nephrons and reduction in glomerular filtration rate; most common causes are diabetic nephropathy, hypertension and acute renal failure; anemia, electrolyte imbalances
Inflammation of the back of the testes; swollen painful scrotum; in older men due to enlarged prostate and younger men due to sexually transmitted organism
Inflammation of glomerulus; common after streptococcal infection; oliguria, smoky frothy urine, edema, costovertebral tenderness
Unilateral or bilateral swelling of the renal capsule from urine outflow obstruction; flank and back pain; causes renal stones, tumors, prostate enlargement
Disorders caused from glomerular damage; frothy urine, large amounts of protein and immunoglobulins lost in urine, increase in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Hereditary disorder causing fluid-filled cysts to form in kidney; UTIs, increased blood pressure, hematuria, discomfort in flank and lower back
Inflammation of kidneys caused by ascending UTI; E. coli usual causative agent, dysuria, fever, costovertebral tenderness, increase in WBCs
"kidney stone"; men affected more than women; renal colic, nausea, vomiting, costovertebral tenderness
Damage to skeletal muscle fibers that are released into bloodstream and accumulate in renal tubules; caused by crush injuries, lipid-lowering drugs, extremes of exertion; see azotemia, hypertension, hematuria
Inflammation of urethra; more common in men; dysuria, blood in urine or sperm; history of unprotected sex
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria; females more than males; bacterial count > 100,000 / mL; 95% caused by flora from rectum
Chest pain that usually subsides with rest; causative events include smoking and "4 Es" - eating large meal, excitement, environment (very hot/cold), exercise
Bulging or ballooning of aorta d/t hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, congenital anomaly; common in abdominal aorta
Enlargement of the heart muscle or chambers of the heart that causes heart failure; 2 main types - dilated or restrictive; dyspnea, fatigue, ankle edema, syncope, angina
Congestive Heart Failure
Caused by any structural damage to the heart pump; can be left sided or right sided; left sided causes back-up of fluid in the lungs; right sided causes back-up of fluid in inferior and superior vena cava
Coronary Artery Disease
Results in an interruption of blood flow that can cause ischemia or infarction as a result of atherosclerosis.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Blood clot usually in the legs; unilateral edema, redness, pain, warmth; positive Homan's sign; causes venous stasis, post-operative
Lack of perfusion of blood to cardiac muscle; severe "crushing" chest pain radiating jaw, upper arms, neck, scapulae; also increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, sweating; see ST segment elevation on EKG
Inflammation of the myocardium; cause can be viral, bacterial, inflammatory or autoimmune; fever, chest pain, activity intolerance
Inflammation of the pericardial sac; substernal radiating chest pain increasing in intensity with deep inspiration or lying flat; pain may be relieved when sitting upright and leaning forward; pericardial friction rub
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Intermittent claudication in the calves associated with activity; color changes to legs with hair loss and dry flaky skin; decreased pulse, increase pain and pallor
Visible tortuous bulging veins that cause pain or pressure in the leg. Can also occur in the esophagus d/t portal hypertension
Venous Stasis Ulcer
Occurs in lower extremities when blood is not returned efficiently to the heart and venous pressure increases; edema and brown leathery skin
Inflammation of the endocardium causing vegetation on valves; presents 2-3 weeks post beta hemolytic streptococci infection; fever, chest pain, cough, dyspnea
Skin disorder of sebaceous glands and their hair follicles; usually in adolescents
Infection in the subcutaneous tissue; acute onset of edema, patchy erythema and pain; increased incidence with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease
Patterned skin eruption after contact with an allergen or irritant
Vesicular rash; often have asthma as comorbid illness
Caused by virus (HSV); painful itchy vesicular lesions on lips, nose or genitals; 2 types: HSV-I "above the waist", HSV-II "below the waist"; transmitted by direct contact, respiratory droplet, or fluid exposure
Caused by varicella zoster virus (chicken pox); lies latent and reactivates with stress or decrease in immunity; "dew drops on a red leaf"; painful vesicular lesions occurring along sensory nerve pathways
Superficial bacterial infection of skin caused by staph, strep or both; usually in children; honey colored crust on lips, mouth, nose, hands or perineum
Erythema and pain around and at the nail fold; common in nail biters and thumb suckers; acute or chronic
Head lice; itching of scalp due to movement of lice from hatched eggs laid 7-10 days prior
Autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of papules or plaques with silvery scales; underlying skin is erythematous
Mutation of skin cells occurring from exposure to sun; lesion has asymmetry, irregular borders, color changes, larger than 6mm diameter
Superficial / Partial Thickness Burn
Thermal or chemical injury to the skin; redness of skin resembling sunburn or redness and mottling of skin with blister formation
Superficial fungal infections occurring when skin is impaired by exposure to moist environment; reddened lesions with scaly appearance; lesions may form circular areas, reddened raised areas or both
Warts caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV); pink or light pink growths that cluster on skin structures
In traumatic injury (crush or fracture), fascia compresses swelling tissue causing loss of vascularity to tissue and nerves; severe pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, cool to touch.
Disruption in bone structure caused by trauma or pathology; decreased ROM, pain, or deformity over an area of injury; crepitation may be heard or felt.
High serum uric acid levels lead to formation of crystals and are deposited in joints and other connective tissues; acute pain and swelling in a joint; most common is great toe
Caused by wear and tear on joints and obesity; affects weight bearing joints and vertebral column; pain and stiffness; more common after 40 years old.
Decreased bone mineralization because of lack of calcium or vitamin D; more common in women and persons with low sun exposure; bone pain and muscle weakness; causes bowed legs in children and soft brittle bones in adults.
Infection in the bone; increase temperature with pain and inflammation over affected bone; increased WBC.
Loss of bone density; more common in females; ABONE (A=age; B=bone; ONE=one never on estrogen).
Osteoclastic activity followed by exaggerated response by osteoblasts resulting in enlargement of bone; common in femur, skull, vertebrae and pelvis; older adults; increase in urine and serum calcium.
Systemic disease both genetic and autoimmune in nature; females more than males; RF antibodies react with IgG forming immune complexes in body and synovial joints; fatigue, flu-like symptoms, bilateral joint inflammation; swan neck deformity; nodal formation.
Ligaments slightly or completely torn; most likely joint is ankle; pain, swelling, and heat
Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease
Caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Helper CD4 and Killer CD8 cells are attacked and destroyed. Characterized by lymphadenopathy, night sweats, and opportunistic illnesses
Severe type I hypersensitivity reaction. Most common from food and insect stings. Sudden onset of wheezing, hypotension and tachycardia
Autoantibodies fight TSH. Initially present with hyperthyroidism and then hypothyroidism. Associated with goiter, insomnia and fertility problems.
Rare lymphatic malignancy of endothelial cells. Characterized by red to purple macules, papules and nodules that first appear on mucous membranes. Found in persons with AIDS
Autoimmune disease of the skin, connective tissue and internal organs; "stone face"; strong association with Raynaud's phenomenon.
Lacrimal and salivary glands are attacked by autoantibodies and T lymphocytes. Associated with increased chance of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, blurred vision, dysphagia and decreased taste
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Immune system antibodies attack "self". Characterized by butterfly rash, arthritis, and myalgia. Inflammation from overreaction of immune system.
Reactive inflammatory disorder associated with exposure to allergens, viral infection, pollution, smoking, or extremes of temperature, expiratory wheeze on auscultation, non-productive cough; "chest is tight".
"Pink puffer"; hypoxic respiratory drive; chronic alveolar destruction d/t smoking; barrel chest, pursed lip breathing
"Blue bloater"; chronic inflammation of mucous membrane lining of bronchi and bronchioles d/t smoking; cyanosis, develops right-sided heart failure.
Viral syndrome spread as aerosolized particles (airborne) and causes systemic inflammatory reactions of myalgia, fever, respiratory and GI symptoms.
Damage or disease causing pleural space to lose negative pressure; dyspnea and cough; decreased breath sounds over affected area; pleural friction rub
Inflammation of the lung tissue; productive cough (green, yellow, rusty), chills, dyspnea; pain on inspiration
"Collapsed lung" caused by trauma or pathological event; sudden sharp pain in chest area; shortness of breath, decreased oxygen saturation, absent breath sounds in affected lung
Thrombus from blood clot that occludes pulmonary circulation impairing gas exchange; rapid onset of dyspnea, chest pain, anxiety, feeling of impending doom, hemoptysis
Infection by tubercle bacilli spread by airborne route; Ghon tubercle, weight loss, night sweats, low grade fever, hemoptysis, fatigue
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Destruction of alveolar walls and capillary beds caused by stimulation of immune mediators that decrease oxygen exchange by fibrosis and edema; caused by traumatic event (sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, near drowning); chest x-ray shows "white out".
Benign tumor of the Schwann cells of cranial nerve VIII; facial numbness, hearing loss, headache, tinnitus
Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Highest risk group is Asian or Intuit women over 45 years or persons with nearsightedness; unilateral redness and pain in the eye, headache, nausea, vomiting; may see halos around lights
Opacity of the lens occurring over 40 years of age and most common in elderly; exposure to UV light is risk factor; difficulty driving at night because of excessive glare
Conductive / Sensorineural Hearing loss
Acquired or congenital inability to discriminate sound; Weber's and Rinne's tests are abnormal
Gradual central visual field changes that can progress to flashing lights and cessation of vision; result of poorly controlled diabetes
Inflammation of the inner ear caused by bacterial or viral microorganisms; vertigo, tinnitus; fever; increased WBC, nausea and vomiting
Progressive loss of central, near or color vision; risk factors older than 75, female, white, smoker, hyperlipidemia
Inflammation of the mastoid sinuses usually a result of spread of infection from acute otitis media or sinus infection; pain behind the ear, fever, chills
Excessive endolymph in the compartment of the inner ear; ear fullness, tinnitus, vertigo, movement of head makes symptoms worse
"Swimmer's ear"; infection or inflammation of the external auditory canal caused by a contact allergy, acute bacterial infection or fungal infection
Accumulation of fluid in the middle ear; common in infants and children; fever and pain in the ear; red, swollen tympanic membrane; usually associated with colds and allergies
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Most common type of glaucoma; over the age of 35 years; risk factors black race, trauma to eye, chronic use of corticosteroids; bilateral painless loss of vision; may see halos around objects and experience mild aching in the eyes or headaches
Loss of peripheral vision, flashing lights, floaters or total loss of part of the visual field; "curtain falling over the visual field"
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Patho Final Exam
Ch. 21 Congenital & Genetic disorders
Immunology of HIV Infection
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