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Mark 3318 Final

STUDY
PLAY
The legitimacy inherent in one's job is _____, whereas the ability to influence someone else is____.
Authority, Power
If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has:
Influence
As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on ____ power.
Referent
The power base of the future will likely be:
Expert Power
As a student, you are developing ____ power
Expert
According to the strategic contingency perspective, which one of the following factors is NOT a primary factor used to explain differences in power between departments?
Amount of formal authority given departments
To use power ethically a manager should examine the behavior by asking three questions regarding criterion outcomes:
Distributive justice, utilitarian, and individual rights
McClelland's two faces of power include
Personal and social
McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have:
A high need for social power and a low need for affiliation
An individual who seems to always have a full calendar and is frequently going to meetings displays ___, according to Korda.
Time Power
According to Michael Korda's view on power which emphasizes symbols of power, which of the following are the three unusual symbols used to explain power differences between individuals?
Furnishings, time power, and standing by
Research has shown that four tactics are used most frequently regardless of the target of the influence attempt. Which of the following is NOT one of the four tactics used most frequently?
Exchange
Evidence indicates that the influence tactic which has the most positive effect on supervisors' assessments of promot-abiltiy is:
Rational persuasion
The textbook suggested that there were three ways a manager can use influence tactics well or in a positive manner. Which of the following is NOT one of the key ways to positively use influence?
Use job-related tactics
The ability to get things done through positive interpersonal relationships outside the formal organization is known as:
Political skill
It is easier to encourage employee empowerment when the organization highly values ___ and ___ power.
Expert; referent
Which of the following set of dimensions comprise the essence of empowerment?
Meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact
The organization rewards sought from using all four of the empowerment dimensions discussed in your text include:
Increased effectiveness, less stress, and higher job satisfaction
Empowerment can be thought about as being related to which two job dimensions?
Job content and job context
Self-management or the highest level of empowerment represents:
Decision-making control over job content and job context
Kotter suggests that leadership and management:
Are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations
Trait theories of leadership attempt to:
Focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities
A major difference between trait and behavioral theories of leadership is:
Trait theories emphasize personality & ability attributes versus actions and abilities
All of the following are autocratic leader characteristics except:
Employee-centered
The most pronounced consequence of laissez-faire leadership tends to be:
Chaos in the work environment
Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid identifies the country club manager as someone who:
Creates a pleasing, happy work environment and applies minimal supervision
The impoverished manager is one who:
Exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired
As a supervisor, you find yourself in a situation where you have good relationships with employees, the task is structured, and you have and can exercise strong position power. Your leadership behavior and style should be:
Task-oriented
Situational favorableness using Fiedler's model consists of which three dimensions?
Position power, leader-member relations, and task structure
Fiedler recommends that managers, in order to be effective, should:
Carefully assess and diagnose the situation
The LPC scale is:
A projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with
The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on:
The expectancy theory of motivation.
The path-goal theory assumes that leaders:
Adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the followers and the environment in which they work.
The key situation variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:
Maturity level of employees
The basic idea behind leader-member exchange theory is:
Leaders form two groups of followers (in-groups and out-groups)
Transformational leaders:
Inspire and stimulate followers to high performance levels
Charismatic leadership rests greatly with ___ power
Referent
EI is defined as:
The power to control one's emotions and perceive emotions in others
The power not only to control emotions but also to perceive them is termed:
Emotional Intelligence
As a manager, your ability to diagnose conflict as good or bad is contingent upon your looking at all of the following except:
The presence of groupthink
Two departments in a university are engaged in a conflict because one had its budget cut. This is an example of conflict based on:
Common resources
Two machine operators disagree over the cause of an equipment breakdown. This conflict is based on differences in:
Perception
Conflict that occurs between two or more organizations is considered
Interorganizational conflict
When a child gets sick at school, the parent often must leave work to care for the child. This would be an example of
Interrole conflict
The conflict that develops when a role behavior clashes with individual values is called
Person-role
Middle managers frequently are caught in a power squeeze. This conflict takes the form of
Role conflict
A defense mechanism in which an individual continues dysfunctional behavior that will clearly not solve a conflict is known as
Fixation
When a person continually responds with pessimism to attempts at solving a problem, he/she is displaying:
Negativism
The cooperative approach to conflict management leads to
Win-win solutions
An ineffective technique for dealing with conflict where a delaying action is used to buy time is referred to as:
Administrative orbiting
Effortful, productive activity that results in a product or a service defines
Work
While there are differences in the meaning of work among countries, similarities appear to exist in
Work content, measured by items such as "the amount of responsibility on the job" and job context, measured by items such as "The policies of my company"
The basic building blocks of an organization are
Jobs - task and authority relationships
The process of subdividing and departmentalizing an organization is ___ whereas, _____ is the process of linking jobs and departments into a cohesive whole
Differentiation, integration
The process of connecting jobs and departments into a coordinated, cohesive whole is known as
Integration
Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of
Boredom of overspecialized work
The standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers defines
Work simplification
According to Frederick Taylor, the role of the worker is to
Execute the task
Scientific management includes all of the following elements:
Time and motion studies
Differential piece-rate systems of pay
Scientific selection of workers
A shortcoming of work simplification is that
The human capacity for thought and creativity
The problem of overspecialization has been addressed by
Job enlargement
Job rotation and cross training are variations of
Job enlargement
Job enrichment is based on
Designing or redesigning a job by incorporating motivational factors into it
The Job Characteristics Model is a/an
Person-job fit approach to job design and employee job placement
Enlarging a job is most closely associated with which of the following core job characteristics
Skill variety
The harnessing of organizational members to their work roles is known as
Engagement
The interdisciplinary approach to job design emphasizing the person's interaction with physical aspects of the work environment and concern with physical exertion is the
Biological approach
Within the interdisciplinary approach to job design, the motivational approach is grounded in
Industrial psychology
Lower job satisfaction, motivation, and higher absenteeism will be negative outcomes that should be anticipated with which one of the following interdisciplinary approaches to job design?
Mechanistic approach
All of the following are important components or approaches to the interdisciplinary approach to job design
Mechanistic approach - mechanical engineering
Motivational approach - Industrial psychology
Biological approach - biology
Perceptual motor approach - experimental psychology
An example of the subjective element of a career is
Your perception of your potential in a chosen occupation
Discrete exchange means
Explicit exchange of specified rewards in return for task performance
Occupational excellence means
Continually honing skills that can be marketed across organizations
Corporate allegiance meant
Social relationships within corporate boundaries being actively encouraged
Which of the following is an incorrect match of Holland's personality types and occupations?
Realistic....................pro baseball player
An assumption that drives Holland's theory is that people choose occupations
Based on matches with their own personality
A way of avoiding inherent conflicts between the individual and organization regarding job choice is
Realistic job preview
The best attitude toward change in the new work environment is
To think of organizational change not as a disruption to your work, but instead as the central focus of your work
Almost 40% of new managers fail within the first 18 months on the job because of
A lack of human skills
According to Levinson's life stages and career stages, middle adulthood is best associated with
The advancement/maintenance stage
The change and acquisition stage of organizational socialization occurs during the ___ career stage
Establishment
Which of the following is NOT an issue that is important to the advancement stage of the career stage model?
Life satisfaction
An approach to building competencies by moving laterally through different departments or different projects is
Career lattice
Work-home conflicts are typically first encountered during which phase of the career stage?
Advancement
A relatively new source of work-home conflict is
Need for eldercare
According to the career research of Edgar Schein, career anchors are
Self-assessed talents, motives, and values that guide career decisions
While downsizing can increase shareholder value by better aligning costs and revenues, the effective organizations are the ones that excel at
Systematic innovation
Which of the following is NOT an external force that can stimulate the need for change?
Changes in employee's expectations
All of the following are part of globalizing an organization except:
Focusing on behavior rather than attitudes
Most changes that encourage employees to become more ethical are targeted at
Culture
An example of an internal force for change is
An increased grievance rate
When the organization changes its mission, culture, goals, strategy, and structure it has
Made a transformational change
A price adjustment in gasoline by an oil company in response to an excise tax increase is a/an ___ change
Incremental
Outside change agents may be preferred by employees because they are viewed as
Impartial
Change leaders within organizations tend to be all of the following except:
Middle aged, between the ages of 35-45
The introduction of US business practices into a foreign company is referred to as
Economic imperialism
In Lewin's force field analysis technique, the status quo can be viewed as a/an
State of equilibrium
Lewin's model proposes that successful change efforts require
The three-stage process must be completed
When an outside consultant provides assistance to executives concerning their interpersonal skills, conflict resolution styles, decisions approaches, and leadership styles, ___ is being used
Process consultation
Psychological contracting can be modified, improved, and clarified through
Role negotiation
When people with an external locus of control perform well,
They are likely to attribute their performance to luck or the fact that the task was easy
A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one's job or job experiences reflects:
Job satisfaction
Maslow's hierarchy of needs model begins with ___ needs and ends with ___ needs.
Physiological, self-actualization
According to Tuckman's model, dependence on guidance and direction is the defining characteristic in what stage of group development?
Forming
Transformational leaders:
Inspire and stimulate followers to high performance levels