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Biology Study

Hypertonic Solution

When there is a GREATER concentration of solute molecules OUTSIDE the cell than inside.

Hypotonic Solution

When there is a GREATOR concentration of solute molecules INSIDE the cell than outside

Isotoinic Solution

When there is the SAME concentration of solute molecules on the inside and the outside

The SWELLING AND BURSTING of animal cells when water enters
happens when a cell is placed in a

Hypotonic Solution

What organelle [that plants have that animals don't] keeps plant cells from
bursting in this condition?

Cell wall

What type of cell, animal or plant, bursts when in a hypotonic solution?

animal cell

The SHRINKING of plant cells when water leaves so the cell membrane pulls
away from the cell wall or shrinking of animal cells happens when a plant cell is
placed into a

hypertonic solution

Cells stay the same size when placed in an

isotonic solution because the amount of water
leaving the cell is the same and the amount of water entering.

The substance that dissolves to make a solution is called the


During diffusion molecules tend to move

down/ the concentration gradient

When the concentration of solute inside & outside a cell is the same, the cell has reached

dynamic equalibrium

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called


Energy for active transport comes from a cell's


What type of transport requires energy from ATP to move substances across membranes.


All of the following are kinds of passive transport EXCEPT

ion channels

When molecules move DOWN the concentration gradient it means they're moving from

HIGH to LOWER concentration

Active transport requires

ENERGY to move molecules across membranes

_A_T P

is the molecule that provides the energy for active transport.


moves oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules from a high concentration to
a low concentration across membranes.

The cell organelles that burns glucose and provides ATP for active transport are the


Water moves across membranes by


A small membrane sac used to transport substances during exocytosis & endocytosis

V_A C U O L E (vescicle would also work - but didn't fit in the spaces)

What type of transport does NOT REQUIRE energy.


A cell placed in an _I_S O T O N I C solution

neither swells or shrinks because the
concentration of molecules outside the cell is the same as inside.

A solution in which there is a HIGHER concentration of molecules OUTSIDE the cell than


What forms whenever there is a difference in
concentration between one place and another.


A solution in which the concentration of molecules outside the cell is LOWER than inside


When molecules move from high to low along a concentration gradient we say they are
moving "


WHAT TYPE OF pressure is caused by water inside a plant cell pushing against the cell wall


solution with a lower solute concentration (more water)


solution in which the solute concentration is the same


condition plant cells require
[otherwise the cell shrinks away from the membrane and the plant wilts]


condition that animal cells require


red blood cell bursts (cytolysis)


plant cells shrink (plasmolysis)


solution with a higher solute concentration (less water)


solution with a high water concentration


Animal Cell

Hypertonic: Cell Shrinks
Hypotonic: The bursts & swells
Isotonic: Stays the same

Plant Cell

Hypertonic: Cell shrinks away from cell wall
Hypotonic: The cell swells against the cell wall
Isotonic: the cell stays the same

Transport protein that provides a tubelike opening in the plasma
membrane through which particles can diffuse

Transport Protien

Is used during active transport but not passive transport


Process by which a cell takes in material by forming a vacuole
around it


Particle movement from an area of higher concentration to an
area of lower concentration

Passive transport

Process by which a cell expels wastes from a vacuole


A form of passive transport that uses transport proteins

facillitated diffusion

Particle movement from an area of lower concentration to an
area of higher concentration

Active Transport

Transport protein that changes shape when a particle binds
with it

protein ion pump

factors that affect the rate of diffusion

- temperature [increase temp, increase diffusion bc particles speed up]
- shape [some particles can move by simple diffusion, some can move through
protein channels, and some have to move by ion carriers or by endo/exo-cytosis]
- concentration [increase concentration, increase diffusion]
- charge [no charge diffuses easily, charged particles do not]
- solubility [if a substance not often won't diffuse in certain solvent]

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