111 terms

Urban Planning Final Exam


Terms in this set (...)

Interconnectedness and Complexity; Relationship of these to the field of urban planning
Interconnectedness: development of a specific area/piece of land will affect areas around it (housing prices, generated traffic, pavement decisions, fiscal health, etc.)
Complexity: Justifies planning as separate profession/activity of government

CANNOT be used interchangeably - mean different things.
What is the relationship of planning and systems theory?
Systems theory: idea that everything is a system, helps to understand how "systems" relate to each other within a city/region. Every system is part of a larger one, exchange energy with one another and environment
Who implements a local comprehensive plan/regulatory tools?
The plans/tools are developed/adopted and carried out, then evaluated by the governing body of local government.

Ex: city council, township board of supervisors, count board of supervisors
Define relationship between comprehensive plan and regulatory tools
The Comp. Plan and the planning process provide a legal framework for regulating property for a public purpose - allows regulatory tools to be used for "the good of the community as a whole"
What are the forces behind urban growth?
1. Industrial revolution
2. Shift from cottage industries to factory production
3. Low-cost transportation
4. Place needed to perform commercial and manufacturing processes together
Urban trends in the 20th Century
- Suburban population growth; now larger than non-metro and central-city populations combined
- Invention of automobile; acted as greatest decentralization force
What was included in 19th century American urban reform?
Sanitary, urban open space, and housing reforms, municipal improvement, city beautiful movement
Sanitary reform
Resolved contaminated streams/wells, fixed sewers, created "watter carriage" sewer systems
Urban open space reform
Way to "ventilate" the city, created an urban parkland
Housing reform
Created minimum housing quality, primarily for urban poor, regulated tenement construction as well as lot coverage, bathrooms, etc.
Municipal improvement
Civic improvement (tree planning, paving, parks, anti-billboard); first public concern of how cities look - late 1800's
City beautiful movement
- Municipal art, civic improvement, landscape design
- Marks beginning of Colombian Exposition, celebrated 400th year of America's discovery
- Set of a wave of planning actives, focusing on things which the municipal government has clear control - streets, art, public buildings/spaces
Urban renewal
- Redevelopment of areas within a large city (typically involving clearance of sums)
- The Housing Act of 1949; used federal funds on renewal projects (spec. housing)
- Disrupted neighborhoods, forced relocation of hundreds and thousands of households
Highway planning
Coincident with suburbanization of households as well as economic activity
- National Defense Highway Act of 1956
Environmental planning
- 1960s; creation of EPA, National Environmental Policy Act, environmental impact statements, clean air act, clean water act
- Must consider environmental impacts while planning
Growth control and growth management
- To prevent/limit growth via planning in communities that felt threatened by it
- Control population due to environmental concerns
Smart growth
- Concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl
- Advocates compact, transit-oriented walkable, mixed-use areas via planning
The Colombian Exposition in 1983
- Municipal art, civic improvement, landscape design
the White City
- Used unicipal art, civic improvement, landscape design together to create a comprehensive design scheme =[
- Lead City Beautiful movement
- Planted first seed of urban planning
- Inspired cities to focus on the beautification of city components
- Part of Colombian Expo.; inspired first modern comp. city plan in America
Difference between Home Rule and Dillon's Rule states
Home rule: gives local government any power that is not forbidden by the state, other legislation; includes charter townships, "charter" sets forth taxing and borrowing limits, number of services, etc.

Dillon's rule: local gov.'s only have the power expressly granted to it by the state, excersice authority only in the ways set forth by the constitution

Difference example: Dillon's rule state may delegate local governments the power of eminent domain where home rule states may confer eminent domain power on local governments through home rule provision
Eminent domain
- Government's right to take property for public use as long as it compensates the property owner fairly for the value of property taken
- Stated withing the Housing Act of 1949, upheld by U.S. Constitution; 5th amendment: "private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation; 14th amendment: "no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law."; 4th amendment: "the right of people to be secure in their persons, house, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures."
- Eminent domain cannot be used for trivial uses, must be deemed "reasonable"
Police power
- Inherent authority of State governments to impose restrictions on individual rights for the sake of health, safety and public welfare
State enabling legislation
- Defines local planning function as well as municipal obligations and powers w/ regard to taxation, borrowing, judicial system, provision of police protection, etc.
- Encourages planning, defines scope of planning and gains legal support for areas should its plan be challenged in court
- All local municipalities must establish planning commission and adopt a master plan
Mugler v. Kansas
- 1887
- Forced closing of a brewery without compensation, ruling held in court in order to protect the "health and safety" of the community, required no compensation
The Village of Euclid v. Ambler realty Company
- 1926
- Supreme Court sustained a village zoning ordinance that prevented Ambler Realty Co. from building a commercial structure in a residential zone.
- Firmly established idea that a municipality could impose an uncompensated loss upon a property owner through the mechanism of land-use controls
Kelo v. City of New London
- 2005
- Upheld the decision to allow public party to private party transactions, affirming the previous decision of Berman v. Parker
- Uproar over decision resulted in all state legislatures meeting to restrict the right of state to private party transactions; legislative overruling of Kelo decision
Is planning political? Why?

- Planning decisions effect citizen's daily lives
- They're clearly visible, have large financial consequences, have emotional effects, effect property taxes, etc.
List styles of planning
Neutral public servant, community consensus, entrepreneur, advocate, and radical
Neutral public servant
Planners take politically neutral stance and rely only on professional expertise; offers options rather than concise plans
Community consensus (planning style)
Planning becomes an act of politics
Entrepreneur (planning style)
Planning becomes an act of entrepreneurship as sits are readies for development through marketing, negotiating and dealing with private capital
Advocate (planning style)
Planners act as representation for certain groups or causes, advocates for their interests; minority/poor groups, environmental concerns
Radical (planning style)
See the promotion of radical political and economic changes as a proper long-term goal for planning
What is the role of the citizen in planning?
Citizens have the opportunity to attend public meetings and hearings, increase in demand of citizen input; has become a community process
What are the social implications of transportation planning?
Affect people's access to work, public services as well as various activities; conflict with urban renewal since the taking for urban expressways, etc. result in displacement of people and can destroy the social fabric of a neighborhood
What are the social implications of environmental planning?
Saving environmentally fragile areas v. creating low-income housing; no group of people should bear disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences created by industrial/commercial/municipal operations
What are the social implications of planning for housing?
- Creation of private communities; separating higher income people from lower income people/minorities
- Attributes to homelessness; rent control, removing SROs, urban renewal, housing policies
What is a comprehensive plan?
- Land use and infrastructure plan that sets forth goals, objectives and policies for growth and development over the next 20 years or so
- Acts as basis for local zoning laws, subdivison regulations and for ensuring capital improvements are consistent with goals and objectives outlined in plan
- Must reflect health, safety and public welfare of entire community
Define 8 goals associated with comprehensive plan.
1. Health: spacing housing aart to prevent septic tank leakage, separate industrial from residential areas, etc.
2. Public Safety: flood plan zoning, road patterns for pedestrians
3. Circulation: systems of streets/parking facilities that allow an orderly, efficient and rapid flow of car/pedestrian traffic
4. Services & Facilities: determining location of parks, schools, hospitals, etc.; plans for pattern of land use that allows for public services (police/fire)
5. Fiscal health: relationship between the pattern of development and the fiscal situation fof the community
6. Economic:
7. Environmental protection: restrictions of developing fragile areas, preservation of open space, control discharges into bodies of water
8. Redistributive goals: left leaning planner wish to distribute both wealth and political power downwards, view this as a goal of planning
Define 5 Steps of Planning Process
1. Research phase:
2. Community goals:
3. Plan formulation:
4. Review
5. Revision
What is zoning and what does it regulate?
- Land use control that divides the community into a number of zones and specifies (in great detail) what may be constructed in each zone and what uses they may be put; allows areas to achieve goals through controlling property's use w/o incurring any costs
- Regulates requirements for site layout and uses the structure can be put; able to shape urban patterns by limiting growth in areas and diverting it to others
What is a subdivision regulation? What does a subdivision ordination regulate?
- Legal control over privately owned property controlling the manner in which raw land is to be subdivided and placed on market for development
- Regulates base requirements and minimum design construction standards; required design of subdivisions to be compatible with area's master plan, gives area power to require designs to meet community standards and plans, may allow areas to screen out lower-income households
What are the different types of flexible zoning?
1. Incentive zoning
2. Transfer of Development Rights (TDRs)
3. Inclusionary zoning
4. Planned Unit Development (PUDs)
Incentive zoning
Communities allowing increased residential densities if developers include some units earmarked for low and moderate-income tenants, permit addition commercial height if developer provides amenities at ground level; everybody wins
Transfer of Development Rights (TDRs)
Concentrate and restrict development in specific areas through designating "sending" and "receiving" areas; those in sending may sell unused rights to those in receiving, preserves open space, limits development in fragile areas, may achieve historical preservation goals, etc.
Inclusionary Zoning
Developers exceeding a specified number of units must include a certain percentage of units for low/moderate-income households
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs)
Gives properties different sets of controls set by conventional ordinances, giving them greater mix of uses; alows areas to be more active at all points of the day as well as innovation and flexibility for developers and site owners, hinders ability to create a plan for this area as a whole
Urban farm
- Grows food in urban areas on land - usually backyard or vacant lot that would not typically be dedicated to producing food
Reasons to partake in urban farming
- tool of community development
- neighborhood revitalization
- community economic development, productive use of vacant land
- Proponent of sustainable living (reuse/recycle/energy/eating locally/green living/community building)
Urban farming in Detroit
- Transforming blight into beauty as vacant, abandoned properties are converted to fields for agricultural production
- Guides and inspires growth of "greener" Detroit through planting/educational programs, environmental leadership, advocacy, building community capacity
Urban Paradigms pre-20th century
- Evolution of urban space since 20th century
- Tech advancement/changes of socio-economic conditions
- Suburbanization; increasing auto ownership, improving communication skills, developing transportation
- Uneven development between suburbs and cities, uneven economic distribution between old and new suburbs
- American cities dominated by private riather than pubic
- Urban problems: lack of housing, sanitary, open spaces, transportation, walkability
- Establishment of urban planning to resolve urban problems and control urban expansion
- Emergence of zoning and smart growth since early 20th century
Tradition of economic development planning
- The relationship b/w economic boosts and transportation infrastructure; enhances accessibility to cities
- Building of Erie Canal in 19th century; railroad building in 19th century, airport development in 20th century
Community Development Block Grants
Programs of US Housing and Urban Development seeks to develop viable communities by promoting approaches for providing decent housing, a suitable living environment, and expanding economic opportunities for low and moderate income population groups
Empowerment zones
- Three US congressional designations: renewal communities, empowerment zones, enterprise communities
- Partnership between local entity and USHUD or USDA
- Offers tax incentives and bonds
Michigan Economic Development Corporation
- Public and private partnership for promoting Michigan's economic growth
- Found in 1999
- Offers business assistance services and capital programs for business attraction and acceleration, economic help, entrepreneurship, strategic partnership, talent enhancement, and urban and community development, etc.
- "Pure Michigan" brand
The Civil Rights Movement
Post WWII struggle to end legal segregation and racial discrimination; expanded awareness of human rights and the role of the Federal government in protecting citizens' rights.
Urban renewal and housing
Housing has great social effects; racial segregation, costs - urban renewal programs did not consider to relocate existing communities (low-income, elderly, etc.)
Problems of Homelessness
- Who's responsibility?
- Social exclusion problems; how to deal with mental illness, unemployment, family break up
- How to deal with poverty and housing costs; issue of offering affordable housing
Existence of national planning in the U.S.
- Does not exist; no one person or organization charged with creating plan for nation, no master plan
- Termination of National Resources Planning Board (1943)
- Sounds too socialist, too large, too much power with states
Roles of Federal government within national planning
Major role in shaping pattern of settlement in nation through a variety of programs and policies
The Northwest Ordinance of 1785
- Laid out basic pattern of landownership in US
- Provides details for land surveys and sales
- Foundation of land policy until 1862
- Government sold farm-sized plots that reinforced rural American pattern of development
Homestead Act of 1862
- Gave applicant ownership at no cost of farmland undeveloped federal land west of Mississippi River
- Residents must reside on land for five continuous years
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
- Granted each state 30,000 acres of federally owned land
- Allowed for the creation of a land-grant college
First Pacific Railway Act of 1862
Provided both authorization of the financial incentives for a transcontinental railway
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
Called for uniform design standards across nation; established methods for apportioning highway funding among the states and dealt with questions of procedure and administration
Characteristics of urbanization in China
- Government control and constrained urbanization
- Eventual industrialization and modernization
- Decreased share of agricultural employment, export manufacturing
Characteristics of urbanization in Western Europe
- Effects of WWII and the European Union, side effects of socialism
- Higher population densities, smaller land mass
- Less expansive view of rights of prop. ownership
- More publicly owned housing and land
- Larger apartment residency
0 More reliance on administrative decision rather than courts
- More centralized (except: Germany, Austria, Switzerland)
Concept of urban design in a planning context
- Large scale designs - neighborhoods, cities, sections of cities
- Variables: transportation, neighborhood identity, pedestrian orientation, climate, environmental aspects: sustainability
- Interrelationships over time
Steps of the urban design process
1. Analysis: gathering of basic information, visual surveys, etc.
2. Synthesis: data translated into proposals for action
3. Evaluation: Plans are compared with original goals and problem definitions
4. Implementation: actual financing and construction strategies devised, use of land controls and capital investments
What is good urban design?
- Minimum conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles
- Protection fro the weather
- Easy orientation for direction
- Land use compatibility
- Places to rest and relax
- Safety
New urbansim
- an urban design movement which promotes walkable neighborhoods containing a range of housing and job types.
- Early 1980s; gradually reformed many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, and land-use strategies.
- Traditional neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD).
- Closely related to regionalism, environmentalism and the broader concept of smart growth.
Edge city
- No clear design philosophy, opposite of neo-traditionalist design
- Development based of economic forces, has more jobs than bedrooms, nothing like "city" seen now
Basic goals of community development
- Facilitation of economic growth
- Increase quality of housing stock s
- Sustain or improve commercial functions of area, usually retailing
- Improvement of physical aspects of city: parks, recreation, parking, street patterns
- Urban design goals
- Provision of a variety of services
Urban renewal programs (history and goals)
- Began with housing act of 1949, ended in 1973
- Largest federal program in U.S. history; reshaped parts of hundreds of communities
- Goals: eliminate substandard housing, revitalize city economics, construct good housing, reduce de facto segregation
Urban renewal program (successes/failures)
Success: gave cities ability to compete with suburbs, rid areas of old/obsolescent and replaced it with something newer and more economically viable

Failures: human costs, effects disappeared at project completion, cheap space remained in large amounts
Differences between community development and urban renewal
Community development is a gentler approach with emphasis on rehabilitation and preservation, provides Community Development Block Grants; replaced renewal programs
Urban planning for housing
- Communities must provide opportunity for market to work; infrastructure needed
- Land use controls limit quantity of housing stock, affects price
- Providing low/moderate-income housing
Transportation planning and land use
Land use shapes the demand for transportation, which can alter land use ("chicken before the egg"); best if go hand in hand, should at least coordinate general land use planning and highway planning
Transportation planning process
- Adequate circulation is a major planning goal
- Fusion of engineering, economics and urban planning
- Assist governments in providing an adequate transportation system at acceptable costs
- Four step process to estimate travel movements; should go hand in hand with benefit-cost analysis
- Public transportation: favored by urban designers/environmentalists, planning for financial issues
Federal role in transportation planning
- Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA 1991): retains basic structure of federal transportation aid to states and localities financed by Highway Trust Fund
- Integrate transportation planning w/ land use and environmental planning
History of economic development planning
- American tradition; predates any sort of city planning
- Planning efforts focused on transportation to benefit cities merchants, increase accessibility of city
Federal government and economic development
- Area Redevelopment Administration (ARA); first agency devoted to programs directing fed. funds to economic development in lagging areas
- HUD: operated UDAG program, funded urban area projects
- Tax expenditures: Industrial Revenue Bond (IRB): aided local economic efforts
IRS: permits local governments to make tax-exempt loans to companies
Relationship between urban planning and economic development
Both concerned w/ public investment in infrastructure, land use controls, environmental regulations, etc.; issues between developing within realm of master plan and developing as much as possible
Characteristics of local economic development programs
- Sales and promotion: sell itself
- Subsidization
- Special small area finance arrangements
- Making sites and buildings available
- Incubator buildings
- Revolving loans funds
- Use of land-use controls and provision of infrastructure
Local government approaches for economic growth
Systematic approach; needs assessment, market evaluation, assessment of consequences of economic development program, plan formulation
Definition and history of growth management
- Regulation of the amount, timing, location and character of development; used significantly as planning tool since 1960s and 70s
- Began after WWII w/ mass movement of population to suburbs; reduced density of housing and thus environmental impact, fewer destruction of landscape
Pros and cons of growth management
Pro: provision of infrastructure now proceeds development, communities not burdened with obligations that cannot be met, natural environment not overloaded, no building until proper infrastructure available

Con: point system used for residential development is better, contributes to social exclusion, ignores regional housing needs, exclusionary - no multifamily housing
Local and state growth management programs
- Mostly to protect environmentally sensitive areas, first seen in Hawaii in 1960s
- States can overrule local decisions when the local gov. cannot recognize regional impacts of development decisions
Concept of smart growth
- Connections between development and quality of life; invest time, attention and resources to revitalize city centers, more town, transit and pedestrian centered
- Interest generated by growth of suburban sprawl and associated traffic problems
Sustainability and urban planning
- Must meet the needs of the present without compromising ability of future generation to meet own needs; planning must address goals of environmental quality, social equity and economic development
Sustainable development techniques
- Use of land use controls to protect environmentally fragile areas, provide for residential/commercial activity with minimal footprint
- Green building standards; reduce amount of power used for heating/cooling
- Solar access zoning; slowing greenhouse effects
- Urban design that minimizes vehicular mileage, land use policy favoring housing types requiring less energy
- Community gardening, open-space zoning, neotraditional development, transit-oriented development, etc.
What is environmental planning?
- Covers wide range of concerns have to do with minimizing damage that human activity does to the natural environment
Federal government's role in environmental planning
- Passage of NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act; pollution control expenditures grown substantially, imposition of uniform national standards
- Creation of EPA, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Department of Energy, Clinton administration, etc.
NEPA Process
Agency considering an action with considerable environmental impacts must prepare...
1. environment assessment (EA)
2. decision for an EIS (environmental impact statement)
3. draft preparation
4. final development - all an open process
Superfund programs
Act providing authority to EPA to designate contaminated sites - owners are then required to bring up to EPA standards; creates bias towards suburban "greenfield" sites rather than urban "brownfield"
Characteristics of local government environmental planning
1. Control of the intensity of the development
2. Control of the type of development
3. Control of the location of development
4. Public capital investment
5. Control of the operation once development is complete
Politics and regional planning
- Majority of power lays at municipal level which is too small to adequately address metropolitan area problems; issue of how to set up metro-wide mechanism with capacity to do effective planning, organization able to obtain sufficient support/cooperation from established institutions of government
- Can only succeed to extent local/state politics allow them to
History of regional planning
- Need for regional planning recognized at beginning of 20th century and the appearance of regional planning agencies was first seen, acted secretly
- Post WWII; federal government started to offer state/localities irresistible inducements to plan regionally (Fed. Highway Act: matched highway construction fund, Urban Mass Transit Act: authorized billions of dollars for mass transit if applicants act according to plan) - picked up in 1960s due to environmental problems which are multi-jurisdictional in nature
Public authority
Regional planning of 1920s, quasi-governmental organization with single set of assigned tasks
Council of government concept - give an example
Over 450 now, over 50% must be elected officials, responsibilities designated by municipalities, venue for communication/negotiation between municipal governments
Ex: Atlanta: Atlanta Regional Commission; oldest and largest publicly supported, focus on transportation and open space which are critical issues in area
- Coordinated with separate regional agencies for health, crime and highways, incredibly beneficial for area
Regional approaches in Minneapolis and St. Paul Minnesota
- Merging into a single region, rapid suburbanization
- Metro Planning Commission: regionally planning to minimize sprawl, concentrate development in two central cities
- Must work together to not complicate each other's efforts in restructuring infrastructure
- Passage of metro framework: urban service areas w/ concentrated housing subdivisions, commercial/agriculture areas (no freestanding subdivisions), rural development zones; no urban services provided
- Large economic benefits, higher quality of life
Land settlement
- Ordinance of 1785 laid out basic pattern of landownership, reinforced rural American pattern of scattered farmsteads
- Settlement of West influenced by Fed.
- Shaped and accelerated by actions of Congress; shaped and developed entire U.S.
- Never has been a more powerful stimulus that railroad building
- First Pacific Railway Act of 1862; provided authorization and financial incentives for transcontinental railways
Interstate highway system
- Major act of national planning: largest construction project in human history
- Federal Aid Road Act of 1916: provided federal funds to assist states in construction of highways, established basic pattern of shared funding responsibility and local consent
- Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956: called for uniform design standards across nation, apportioned highway funding among states
- Profound effects on urban development and design; brought economic activity out of urban centers rather than in
Suburban development
- Federal Housing Administration (FHA): offered mortgage insurance, banks more willing to lend with little down payment & Fed. National Mortgage Association (FNMA): bought mortgages from banks, further increased willingness of banks to issue mortgages, no longer committed; promoted raid and extensive suburbanization
- House ownership is tax deductable
Theory and the planning process
- Planners need this when they get stuck; another way to formulate a problem and anticipate oucomes
- Reminder of what is important
- Provides direction, strategy and coherence
- Guides us through continuous self-examination
- Ethical/behavioral frameworks
Rational Model - description and criticisms
- "Orthodox" view: philosophy reflected in comp. plan
- Make planning process as rational and systematic as possible
- No strong basis in reality; no account for political and legal constraints, mandatory requirements/limitation intended to constrain, no time/resources to carry out every step, optimization approach often leads to settling, parties are highly adversial; suspicious of system where no clash occurs
- Short term fix only, no real focus on long range plan/solutions
- limited policy alternatives considered; no room for big gain or loss
- solving existing problems rather than achieving desired long term future states
- typical at local level
Middle-range models
- "Mixed scanning": two step process - general scanning process conducted to gather overall picture, decision of what elements need more detailed examination
- Contains elements of both rational and incremental approaches; avoids excessive commitment, more feasible
Advocacy planning
- Focuses on specific subgroups (poor and powerless); 1960s
- Veers from traditional planning idea of serving the central public interest
Urban Paradigms post 20th-century
- Zoning; first est. 1916
- Community master plans
- Regional & State planning
- Federal planning: began a number of planning initiative during Great Depression to create employment and commit planning
- Urban Renewal: redevelopment/rehabilitation of older parts of towns/cities; improve housing standards while also recognizing imposed costs (environmental, displacement)
- Growth management
- New Urban-ism: urban design movement, reform aspects of urban planning/real estate development; historic preservation, safe streets, green building, redevelopment of brownfield areas
- Smart growth: adjustment of urban sprawl, town-centered; mix of housing, transit/pedestrian oriented, mixed use, preservation of open space/environmentally concerned