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Ch. 14

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?
It stimulates fatty acid release
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
FAT
Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?
The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed
What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?
Water
What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
iron
Hyponatremia refers to low blood levels of
sodium.
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
Transfer of energy to make ATP
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Nutrient-dense foods
What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically?
Mitochondria
Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?
Excessive use shortens life span
Which of the following ergogenic aids increases the risk for acromegaly?
growth hormone
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a
low number of repetitions with heavy weight.
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%
Which of the following is a feature of sports anemia?
It is not a true iron-deficiency anemia
Which of the following is a feature of water metabolism during exercise?
Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water resulting in some degree of dehydration
A person's "VO2 max" is the maximum
rate of oxygen consumption.
The volume of blood ejected by the heart each minute is known as the
cardiac output.
Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?
There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.
What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?
Reduction of blood lipids
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?
Creatine phosphate
What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose?
Cori cycle
Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
2.5 hours/week.
Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness?
Reduced bone density
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
High-carbohydrate diet
The volume of blood ejected by the heart each minute is known as the
cardiac output.
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Carbohydrates
Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?
Lactate
What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?
ATP
The first sign of dehydration is typically
fatigue
What is muscle atrophy?
Loss of muscle size and strength
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
iron
Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?
The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed
Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?
There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat
What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose?
Cori cycle
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning.
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
hypertrophy.
Which of the following is least likely to affect the size of the body's glycogen stores?
Type of supplements taken
n the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
glycogen
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Fat
Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity?
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
1/2 liter
Which of the following is a feature of specific ergogenic aids?
Contain nutrients or nutritional substances in
quantities much greater than the RDA or that found
in food.
Produce a pseudo pharmacological (druglike) effect that may improve performance.
Are often not scientifically tested or proven to
enhance performance.
Are often promoted by anecdotal evidence or testimonials from famous athletes.
Are very fashionable and can often be regarded as a fad.
Are usually very expensive.
What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?
High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?
Creatine phosphate
What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?
Alteration of hormonal profile
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.
n the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
glycogen
What is muscle atrophy?
Loss of muscle size and strength
What is the Cori cycle?
A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles
Which of the following is a characteristic of glycogen synthesis after a bout of strenuous training?
Glycogen repletion is enhanced most by eating foods with a high glycemic index
Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?
It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment
Which of the following ergogenic aids increases the risk for acromegaly?
Growth hormone
In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a
low number of repetitions with heavy weight.
What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?
ATP
What is the usual fate of muscle glycogen during exercise?
Utilized as a fuel within the muscle cells only
What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?
Reduction of blood lipids
Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
What type of chemicals are DHEA and androstendione?
Hormones
Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?
Excessive use shortens life span
Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness?
Reduced bone density
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
High-carbohydrate diet
Which of the following is a feature of sports anemia?
It is not a true iron-deficiency anemia
Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
Yoga